BIBLE HRILHFIAHNA (EXEGESIS) KAIHHRUAINA - TIMES OF MIZORAM

26 Jan 2019

BIBLE HRILHFIAHNA (EXEGESIS) KAIHHRUAINA

BIBLE HRILHFIAHNA (EXEGESIS) KAIHHRUAINA

H. Joseph Lalfakmawia (2nd Feb. 2012)

Bible hrilhfiah hi a harsa vak lo a ni ang, fiah leh ngaihnawm tak taka hrilhfiahna a tam a, hrilhfiahtu pawh kan tam khawp mai. Chutih laiin ‘hrilhfiah’ ve tawp hi a tawk hauh lo va, hrilhfiahna hi bul bal dika a innghah loh phei chuan a hlauhawm tih erawh kan hriat a ngai khawp mai. A zirna huangah chuan Bible châng, a chepa kaia chhuia hrilhfiahna hi exegesis an ti a, Greek tawng atang lak a ni (Gk. ἐξήγησις [exegesis] tih hi ἐξηγεῖσθαι [exêgesthai] tih atanga lo kal a ni a, la chhuak/hruai chhuak-'to lead out' tihna a ni). A bul bal atanga chhui chhuak tihna a ni ber ang. Hemi letling chiah hi a awm ve a, eisegesis an ti thung a, Greek tawng atang veka lak chhuah a ni a. Exegesis nena an inan lohna hi an kawh tum a lehlin thauhna a ni. Exegesis tiha ‘ex’ tih hi a sapṭawng chuan ‘from, out of’ tihna a ni a, a bul aṭanga ṭana chhui chhuak chho tihna a ni a, eisegesis tiha mi ‘eis’ tih hi ‘into’ tihna a ni a, ‘chhui lut’ tiin a dah theih thung ang. Chu chuan mahni ngaihdan kan neih sa (subjective interpretation) hmanga a bu hrilhfiah mil phet kan tumna, a bu chhung thuin a tum dan tak ni chuang si lo sawina hi a ni. Tum nei sa rana chumi mil tura Bible thu remchang zawn hmuh tumna ang hi a ni tihna a ni. Hei hi exegesis ziarang kalh hlauh a ni.

BIBLE HRILHFIAHNA

Bible hrilhfiah dik tur hian tih tur a tam khawp mai. Sermon atana hman nghal vek remchang dawn kher lo mah se a ṭul zual nia langte kan tarlang ang a, a remchan dan ang zelin entirna pek kan tum bawk dawn nia.

Bible châng, Thuthlung Hlui leh Thar huam ve vein, hrilhfiah dik tur chuan chik tak leh dilchhut taka chhui a ngai a, taimak leh dawh theih a ngai a ni. Hengte hi mathei lova hriat a ngai:

I. BACKGROUND

Bible hre fiah dik tur chuan Israel chanchin (history) kan hriat ngei ngei a ngai a. Bible hi chanchin indawt (history) ziahna bu ni kher lo mah sela Israel chanchin inla lawn leh a kaihhnawiha invaw vet vel a ni deuh ber mai. Israel chanchin hre chiang tur hian chhiar tur ṭha mizoṭawng lehkhabu pawh a awm ve nual tawh a. Sapṭawng bu rawn theite tan phei chuan lehkhabu ṭha, mithiam tak tak heng Gerhard von Rad, John Bright, Martin Noth, Emil Schurer, Joachim Jeremias leh mi dang tam tak ziak hmuh tur a awm a ni. Heng lehkhabu hmang hian Israel mite leh Bible-a kan hmuh hnam dang chanchin hi kan belh chian a angai a ni. An chanchinah chuan a hnuaia mite hi belhchian ngei ngei a ṭha bawk:

1) CULTURAL BACKGROUND:

Hebraiho/Judaho leh hnam dang reng reng hian mahni hnam dan kalphung an nei fir fer a. An thu vuakthlak leh inzirtirna pawh hei hian a nghawng thui hle. culture hrang hrang insu buai karah thu a tla zep nasa a. Chuvangin Judaho  culture leh hnam dangho culture te kha a theih ang anga hriat ni ta se a fiah leh zual ang. Greek ṭawng kha tunlaia sapṭawng kan hmang ang chiah hian khawvel pumah hman a ni a. Palestina ramah ngei pawh hman a ni. Isua hunlai vel bawr khan ram awptute chu Rome-ho an ni a, mahse Greek ṭawngin ro a la rel reng a ni. Rome-ho official ṭawng chu Latin a ni a, mahse official thilah chauh lo chuan Palestina ramah chuan Latin ṭawng chu hman a ni lo a ni awm e. Hetih lai hian Hebrai ṭawng hi an sakhaw lehkhabu ziahna ṭawng a nih avangin a la pawimawh reng tho va, mahse sawkhaw biakna atan hman a ni deuh ber. Aramaic hi Hebrai nen a inzul em em a. Hei hi ṭawng tual leng ber a ni. Greek leh Aramaic hi an hmang nasa ber. Isua khan a rawngbawlnaah khan Aramaic a hmang nia ngaih a ni. Mahse Thuthlung Thar chu Greek ṭawnga (Koine/Hellenistic Greek) ziah a ni ta vek a ni. A awmzia chu Isua thusawite chu lehlin (Aramaic aṭanga Greek) an ni tihna a ni ber ang. Hei vang hian thui leh zual ngaihtuah a ngai fo.

2) RELIGIOUS BACKGROUND

Judaho chu Pathian pakhat betute (monotheists) an ni a. Pathian pawh Sipaihote Lalpa an tihna chhan pakhat chu indo reng mai an ni a, indona chu mihring indona mai ni lovin pathian leh pathian indona a ni a. Pathian nei chak zawk chu indonaah an chak a, indonaa chak lo chu anmahni ni mai lovin an pathian pawh a chak lovah an ngai ṭhin. Chuvangin Pathian chu Sipaihote Lalpa a ni tlat a ni. Kha vang khan lal Nebukadnezzaran Jerusalem, Pathian khawpui leh a kulh bang a chhu chhia a, temple a suasam ta mai kha anmahni an tlawm mai ni lovin Pathian nung awmna, chhe lo tura an ngaih a chhe ta khan a vaw hle a ni. Mahse an sal tanna hmunah (Babulon) pawh chuan Pathian an theihnghilh lo va. Temple aṭang chuahva biak tur emaw an tih laiin loh theih lohnain a ur thluk avangin Pathian biakna hmun an dinchhuak ta a, synagogue a lo piang ta a ni. Judaho khan Pathian hnam thlan bik niin an ingai nghet hmiah a. Thlan pawh an ni reng a. Mahse thlan an nihna chhan phawk chhuak zo lovin eng an chhit tur chu an timit ta zawk a, hnam dang (gentel) tana enna ni tur si khan thlan ve loh, hnam bawlhhlawh, Pathian hnawlah an ngai ta zawk a.

An sakhua chu puithiam lalber hruaina hnuaiah a kal a. Serh leh sang an dah sang em em a. Zawm loh chu sual lian takah an ngai a. Sakhaw serh leh sang zawm dik thu-ah pawh duh fir zual, entir nan Pharisaite leh midang tam tak an chhuak a. A châng phei chuan Pathian thu chah aiin serh leh sang an ngaipawimawh zawk hial ṭhin a. Hei tak hi Isuan a hauh ṭhinna chhan a ni fo. Hetiang vel intawk sir chho reng hi a ni a. Bible mite sakhua leh an biak dan hriat thiamna hian Bible changa sakhaw thu-ah hriat fiah dikna min pe thei a ni.

3) SOCIAL BACKGROUND

Bible mite nitin khawsak dan leh an nundan phung hriat chian a ngai bawk. Dik an tih te, sual an tih te, mawi an tih te, an ei leh in te, silh leh fen te hi sawi lan a ni fo ṭhin. Chutianga zirtirna an pekte pawh a hunlai mil a ni ve fo thei bawk. Thuthlung Thar hunlai vel bawr kha han thlir ta ila. Rome ram zau leh ropui tak maiah chuan inthliarna a nasa ve hle mai a. Hausa leh rethei inkar a zauvin inrahbehna pawh a tam ve hle mai. Hei hi Thuthlung Hlui lamah pawh a tam, Zawlnei Amosa hunlai pawhin kan hmuh kha. Pharisaiho ngaihdan phei chuan Chhiahkhawntute leh nawhchizuarte kha ngaihdam theih loh/sim thei lo misuala ngaih an ni a, berampute pawh khawsakah an chen beh ni mai lovin Sabbath dan zawm lovah ngaih an ni. Heng hi an sakhua leh khawtlang nuna thil bet tlat a ni a. Judaho khawtlang nun hi mizo history and deuhvin mipa rorelna (patriarchal society) a ni a. Hmeichhia an dah hnuaiin mihringah an chhiar lo em maw ni a tih theih deuh thaw mai; Thuthlung Hlui hunlai phei chuan bungrua ang deuh chauh an ni. Isuan mipui sang nga (5000) a hrai pawhin mipa chauh chhiar an ni a; synagogue din thei tur pawhin Juda mipa (puitling) 10 an awm chuan, tih a ni mai, hmeichhia an chhiar tel lo. Heng ngaihdan leh pawmdante hi a hunlai mil zel a ni. Heng hi tun hunah hian tih ve ngei ngei tura ngaih tur a ni lo vang, a hunlai mite nun phung a ni miau va. Heng hi kan hriat ṭhelh a thiang lo a ni.

4) POLITICAL BACKGROUND

Israel chanchin kan thlir chuan lal an neih pawh khan dictator ang ngawt chuan an nung thiang lo a ni. Pathian rorelna (theocracy) an ni a. Chuvangin an lal pawh hriak an ni kher ṭhin a ni. Lal an neih fuh leh fuh lohvah an khawtlang nun chu a innghat lian hle mai a. Zawlnei Isaian ‘Maka, Remruattua...’ tia Messia a puan pawh kha Messia mak turzia sawina ber pawh ni lovin chu Messia lo kal tura chu Remruattu thiam tak, rorel thiam (wonderful counsellor) a ni mah zawk a. An lalte khan Lal Davida ai an awh zo lo chho em em mai a. Chuvangin Davida ang lal kha an ngai em em a. Chutih naka laiin ram dang miin an awp chho deuh ngar ngar a ni ta mai a. Assyria te, Babulon te, Persia te, Greek te, Rome lalramte chuan an awp chho ta zel mai a ni. Hei hi Messia an nghahhlehna chhan pawh a ni. Messia chuan anmahni awpbettute lak aṭangin a chhanchhuak dawn a ni. Messia chungchâng hian Bible-ah hmun a luah tam hle a. Messia ziarang leh an ngahdan hre tur chuan Thuthlung Hlui politics vir chho vel hi hriat a ngai a ni.

Greek-ho hunlai khan, a bik takin Aigupta ram lamah (Alexandria) an culture khan judaho a chiah hnehin an ṭawng theihnghilh ṭhak khawpin an awm a. An Bible pawh Greek ṭawnga lehlin hial a ngai a, Greek ṭawng Bible, Septuagint a lo piang ta a ni (BCE 250 vel). Greek lalho hun hnuhnung lam (BCE 170 hnu lam) chanchinah phei chuan Palestina Judaho an dazat ṭan hle mai a. Makabia indona lo chhuakin politics a buai hle a. Hetih hunlai hian Greek culture-in Judaho a run nasa em em a. Duh firho (Hassidim, Essenes, Pharisai) lo chhuahna bul pawh hetih hunlai vel hi a ni.

Rome sawrkar hnuaia rorelna leh inawp dan chuan Thuthlung Thar a chiah hneh hle bawk. Rome lal ropui tak Kaisara Augusta rorelna ropui tak avanga remna (Pax Romana-27 BC-180 AD vel) lo awm ta khan chanchin ṭha theh darhna kawngah nasa takin hun remchang a siam a. Rome rorelna hnuaiah chuan, anmahni sakhua vawrh lar tum bawk mah sela, eng sakhua pawh a pianna ramah chuan zalen taka vawn phal a ni a. Juda sakhaw vuantute hovin Kristiante an huat takah chuan Kristianna chu dodal a ni chho ta a. Tihduhdahnate pawh nasa tak an tuar chho ta a ni. Hetiang hian politics inlumlet hian thil tam tak a thlen a. Isuan chhiah pek chungchâng a sawi te, Paulan, “Mi tin an chunga roreltute thu thuin awm rawh se,” (Rom. 13:1) a tihte pawh Rome rorelna che vel leh a hunlai boruak tilangtute an ni thei. An hunlaia an nihdan hi kan hriat a ṭul a ni. Kan vawiin thu leh Bible châng kan sawi zawm dawn chuan a hunlai politics dinhmun kha kan hriat thiam ṭhin a ngai a ni.

5) ECONOMIC BACKGROUND

Bible-ah hian hausa leh rethei inkar zauzia leh retheiten an tawrh nasatzia kan hmu nasa em em a ni. Retheite rapbetin mihausaten nuam an tawl a tih theih hawt ang chu. Agriculture kha an ei zawnna bul ber a ni a. Isua hunlai vel khan Palestina ramah chuan mipui 90% vel kha agriculture lama innghat an ni. Ram zau tak nei kha an tam lo va. Mi ram enkawl hawh (tenants) leh nitin ei chawp zawng an tam em em a ni. Rome sawrkara chhiah an chhun luh bawk avangin an tuar nasa hle a. Lo neituten an thar chhuah 40% vel chu chhiah leh an sakhaw biak nan an seng ral anga chhut a ni bawk. Hetih lai hian mihausate chuan nuam an chen a ni ber. Chuvangin Isua thu hril leh Lehkhathawn lamah pawh Pathian chu mirethei lam ṭang a nihzia an uar em em a ni. Isua tehkhin thu-ah pawh khan a lang a; mihausa leh Lazara kha an pian thar leh thar loh te, an sual an ṭhat te ziah a ni lo. Mahse Lazara kha a thi a, Vanramah a kal a; mihausa chu a thi ve leh a, meidilah a kal ta thung a. An sual an fel ziahlan a ni hran lo. Isuan mihausa Pathian ram luh aiin sanghawngsei hriau benga luh tlang a awlsam zawk ang a ti bawk. Bible-a mihausa leh rethei chungchangah Pathian chu mirethei lam ṭanga mihausate hawtu anga a lang nasa em em pawh hi an economic dinhmun aṭanga thlir chuan hriat thiam a harsa lo.


II. A ZIAKTU

kan Bible châng kan hrilhfiah tur bu chu tunge a ziaktu, tih hi hriat sa reng angin lang mah se ngaihthah theih a ni lo. Entîrna pakhat han tar lang ila: ‘Chanchin Ṭha Matthaia’ hi tunge a ziaktu? A ziaktu hi Matthaia a ni tih hi CE (AD) 125 vela an hmehbel chauh a ni.[1] Hieropolis khaw bishop Papias-an he Chanchin Ṭha bu hi Matthaia ziak niin a sawi. Juda Kristian a nia rin a ni a, Juda Kristiante tana ziah ni ngei bawkin a lang. Chik taka kan chhiar chuan an culture (mipa rorelna) ziarang a lang thei a, Judaho ngaihdan kalphung pangngai, Thuthlung Hlui lama zawlneite thupuan lawk (prophecy) thlen famkimna lam a sawi uar hle. A ziaktu a zirin an thu uardan leh an ṭawngkamte hrilhfiah fuh a awl bîk hle bawk.

III. A ZIAH HUN

Bible-a lehkhabu/Lehkhathawnte ziah hun hriat hi ṭangkai tak a ni bawk. Thuthlung Thar bu kan en chuan Chanchin Ṭha bute an tlar hmasa a, a hnung lamah Lehkhathawn an awm thung. Heng lehkhathawnte hi an upat dan indawta rem a ni chuang lo va. Chanchin Ṭha bute zinga a hmasa bera ngaih Marka ziak (60-75 CE) meuh pawh hi Paula Lehkhathawn hnuhnung ber ai pawhin a tlai zawk a ni tih thu-ah hian mithiamte len tlak a rual hle. lehkhabu ziah hun hriat a pawimawh em emna pakhat chu entîrna nen han sawi ila: rinna leh thil tih chungchângah hian a lang chiang viau awm e. Paula hian rinna avanga thiam channa lam thu Rom Lehkhathawnah te, Ephesi Lehkhathawnah te a lang a. Mahse Jakoba Lehkhathawn lamah chuan rinna chu thiltih tel lo chuan thi a ni tih uar taka sawi a ni. Mi ṭhenkhat, Paula lehkhathawn (Rom: 57 CE vel leh Ephesi: 60 CE vel) aia Jakoba Lehkhathawn hmasa zawka ngai an awm a. Amaherawhchu tunge he Jakoba hi, tih zawhna chhang tur hian Thuthlung Thar bu chhunga a ziaktu ni thei awm Jakoba hming lo lang zir chian a ngai ta a. TT (Thuthlung Thar) buah hian Jakoba tia koh hi mi 5 zet an awm a:

1) Alfaia fapa Jakoba (Mk. 3:18||)
2) Isua nu ni lo Mari fapa Jakoba (Mk. 15:40||; Mk. 16:1)
3) Isua zirtir Thaddaia pa, Jakoba (Lk. 6:16)
4) Zebedaia fapa Jakoba (Mk. 1:19; 3:17||; Tirh. 12:2);
5) Isua unaupa Jakoba (Mk. 6:3||; 1 Kor. 15:7) te.

Heng Jakoba hming pute zinga mi 1, 2, 3 te hi an hming a rawn lang tih lohvah chuan an chanchin hriat zui tur a awm lo hle mai a. 4na, Zebedaia fapa Jakoba (Isua zirtir) lah hi CE 44-na velah khan a martar der tawh mai a. Chuvangin he Lehkhathawn hi ama ziah ni theiin a lang lo a ni. Chuvangin Isua unaupa Jakoba, kohhran hruaitu lu ni chho ta kha ni thei awm ber chu a ni ta a. He Jakoba pawh hi CE 62na velah khan a martar leh ta a. Chuti a nih chuan chu Lehkhathawn chu CE 62na hmaa ziah a ni ngei dawn tihna a ni thei a. RINNA leh THIL TIH TEL LOVA RINNA tih thu hi Paula leh Jakoba hian an sawidan a inang thlarh ta lo deuh va. Paula hian a ziak hnuhnung zawk a nih chuan an thu vuak thlak a inang lo viau tihna a ni thei ang a; Jakoba hian a ziak hnuhnung zawk a nih chuan Paulan rinna avanga thiam channa sawi kha la kawi an awm ang a, kohhran ding tirah a taka thil tih lam hmu hniama rinna lam (thu chauh) kal vawngpui an awm a ni ang tiin a hunlaia zirtirna kal peng hnu hma a hmuh theih thung ang. Chu zirtirna lo pel he ta hret chu siam ṭhain Jakoba chuan heti lam hawizawng hian a kalpui ta a ni ang. He ngaihdan hi a pawmawm zawk bawk.

A dang pakhat han thur chhuak leh ta ila. Matthaia ziakah chuan (Isua pian thu-ah) Josefa a langsar zat zat a. Mari chu a ri meuh lo. Vantirhkoh pawh Josefa hnena langin mipa lalna khawtlang nung (patriarchal society) ziarang a lang a. Luka ziak lamah thung chuan Mari kal tlang deuh veka engkim kha kal a ni thung. A ziaktute hian sawi tum leh kalhmang zui bîk an nei a. An ziahlai hun leh hmun dinhmun an tilang thei a ni. Hei tak hi hrilhfiahna chungchângah pawh a ziaktu leh a hun hriat fiah a pawimawhna chu a ni.

IV. TUTE TANA ZIAH NGE

Chanchin Ṭha bu palite hi Isua pian leh seilen thu te, a rawngbawlna leh a tawrhna leh a zirtirna chi hrang hrang ziahna bu an ni a. Chutiang lam ṭheuh si chu inan vek awm tak; a nih loh vek leh chutiang lam vek si mi hrang hrangin ziak duat lova bu khat chu rin tlan vek awm tak tiin a ngaihtuah theih awm e. Mahse hriat ngei ngai pakhat a awm: Chanchin Ṭha ziaktute hian Bible ziah an tum avanga ziak an ni lo va. Kohhran a lo darh zau zel takah chuan Jerusalem, Judai ram leh a pawn lam, Palestina ram pawn thlengin a lo darh zau ta zel a. Isua chanchin leh a rawngbawlna leh a thiha a thawh leh dan te, ringtute hriat ngei awm chi chu chiang leh zuala hriat an mamawh a, ziak awm tak an nih avangin an ziak a. Chu chu an thawn chhuak ta a ni. Hmun hran hrana ringtute chuan a englai ber hi nge an mamawh ber tih leh engti hawi zawnga ziah tur nge tih hi Chanchin Ṭha ziaktute hian an ngaipawimawh em em a. An thu ziak lo chhiartute mamawhdan ang zelin leh an sukthlek ang zelin an her rem hret ṭheuh niin a lang. Chuvangin Chanchin Ṭha bu palite pawh hi inzul thuak vek mah se danglamna an nei ṭheuh bawk a ni. Entîrna pakhat han siam leh ila: Isua pian thu hi Matthaia leh Luka ziakah chauh a lang a. Marka leh Johana hian pawimawh an ti ve lo em ni ang? Hei hi chhanna dik a ni kher lo vang. Marka chuan Chanchin Ṭha bu a ziah khan a ziahsakate khan Isua pian leh murna lam hi chu an hriat chian tawh sa niin chu lam chu ziah belhchhah ngai vakin a ring lo va, a ziak tel ta lo mai zawk a ni ang. A dang han thai lang leh ila: Matthaia, Marka leh Luka (Synoptic Gospel) ziakah hian Isuan ‘thil mak’ (miracles) a ti hnem hle mai. Johana ziak lamah chuan hengte hi ‘miracle’ tih an ni ve lo; ‘chhinchhiahna’ (sign) a ti zawk. Kha’ng thil makte kha an makna ringawt kha Johana uar duhzawng a ni lo va, Isua chu Messia, Pathian Fapa a nihzia tarlan a duh a, a thiltihte pawh chu a makzawng ringawta sawi lovin Messia, Pathian Fapa a nihzia tihfiah nan khatiang thil ropuite kha a ti zawk a ni, tih hi Johana sawidan chu a ni. Hei hi Johanan a thuziah chhiar tura a tihte tana ṭangkai tur chu a ni zawk.

V. ZIAH CHHAN

Kan sawi tawh angin Chanchin Ṭha bu te, Lekhathawn te leh lehkhabu dangte hi chhan nei veka ziak an ni. A bîk takin Lehkhathawn lam hi lo thlur bing ta ila. Paula lehkhathawn hi 13 ngawt Thuthlung Tharah hian a awm a. Paula hian Bible ziah tumin thu a phuah chhuak ta a ni lo va. Ani hi gentelte tirhkoh inti ngat a ni a. Chanchin ṭha hrilin a vak kual nasa hle tih kan hria. A zin kual hian a vak rawlai satliah mai mai lo va; kohhran a din kual nasa hle a ni. Heng a kohhran phunte hi a thlahthlam zui mai ma ngai lo. An chanchin a hriat zui dan azirin a ṭul ang zelin fuihna thu te, zilhna te, rinna kawnga tihsawtna te, thurin dik zawk te, nunkawng ṭha te, kal sualte kawng dik kawhhmuhna te leh an mamawh a piang sawia, vantlang inkhawm hmaa chhiar chhuah a, a ṭuldan ang zela hmun dangah pawh chhiar kual turin lehkha a thawn ṭhin a ni. Paula lehkhathawnte hi kan chhiar chuan a chunga kan sawi tak ang hian kohhran chhunga harsatna lo thlengte siam ṭha turin thu thlur bîk a nei ṭhin. A châng chuan mimal pawh a sawi bing ṭhin bawk. Kohhrana harsatna lo thlengte chu a hunlaia an tawh dan kan hriat thiam a pawimawh a. Engtin nge Paulan chu harsatna chu a sut, tih te leh tunlai boruak kan hmehbel thiam a pawimawh ṭhin khawp ang.

VI. TEXTUAL PROBLEM

Hei hi a sapṭawng lam hian (sapṭawng thiam tan chuan) a fiah nghal kuar a, mizoṭawng hian lehlin a harsa zawk hial awm mang e. Heta kan sawi tum chu Bible ziahna ṭawng bul lamah thu hmandan inang lo a lo awmin hei hi thil pawimawh tak a lo ni ta tih hi a ni. Hemi tifiah tur hian Thuthlung Thar lam lo thlur bing leh ta ila. Thuthlung Thar bu hi Greek ṭawnga ziak a ni kan tih tawh kha hre reng ila. Tunah hian kut ziak bu Bible bu pum leh pum lo, a ṭhente phei chu te nawi tak takte (rairuang hmanga lehkha siam a nih avangin a keh chhe them tawh tam tak a awm a) pawh telin, 5338 zet a awm a. Heng bu 5338-te hi inang zik tluak thlarh pakhat mah a awm lo bawk.[2] Uar taka sawi ngai chu heng kut ziak buah te hian a tira ziaktu (entir nan Matthaia, Luka, Paula) dik takte ziah (original) pakhat mah hmuh theihin a awm tawh lo va, ziahchhawn (copy) chauh an ni vek tawh a ni.

Kut ziak but chu chi thumin a then leh theih a:

1) Rairuang phek (Papyri a ni a, a lam tawi ‘P’ tiin an ziak thin): Hei hi rairuang (papyrus) hmanga siam a ni a, thu ziah nan a hman theih. Hetiang hi an hmanna a rei tawh hle a, BC zabi 6na hun lai atang khan an hmang tawh. Phek khat hi a tlangpuiin 13-19 inches a ni. Hetiang rairuang phek hi lehkhabu zial ang atan leh tunlai lehkhabu anga keu theih ang chi ziah nan pawh an hmang \hin. Phek tawn tawnin an ziak ngai lova, a phek hma lam chauh an hmang tlangpui. Thuthlung thar ziah an hmuhchhuahte hi CE (AD kan tih hi) zabi 2na atanga 8-na inkara ziah an ni tlangpui.

2) Hawrawppui bute (Uncials): Hetiang chi hi an upa viau a ni kan tih tawh kha. Kum CE zabi 3na atanga 9na inkara ziah an ni. Greek thutlung thar kan neih bu kim hi he uncial-ah hian a awm kim vek. Hawrawppui bu hi za thum (300) vel zet a awm a, a pawimawh leh chhuanawm zualte chu hengte hi an ni:

a) Codex Vaticanus: Hei hi CE zabi 4-na laihawl vela ziah a ni a, Thuthlung Thar bu tawp lam a kim lo.
b) Codex Sinaiticus:  Hei pawh hi CE zabi 4-na laihawl vela mi tho a ni a, Thuthlung Thar bu pumpui a kim vek a, bu hnih dang: Barnabas tih leh The Shepherd of Hermas tih pawh a tel bawk.
c) Codex Alexandrinus: Hei hi CE zabi 5-na vela ziah a ni a, Thuthlung Thar bu kim leh 1 and 2 Clement leh the Psalms of Solomon bute a tel.
d) Codex Bezae: Hei pawh hi CE zabi 5-na vela ziah a ni a, Matthaia, Johana, Luka, Marka, 3 Johana leh Tirhkohte Thiltih bute chauh a ni thung. Latin leh Greek tawnga ziah a ni bawk.

3) Hawrawp te bu: Kan sawi tawh angin hawrawp te bu hi chu a tlai deuh va, CE zabi 9-na lama chhuak chauh a ni. Hetiang hawrawp te kutziak bu hi 2900 vel zet a awm.

Tichuan tuna kan sawi tum ber chu, Bible hi, mizoṭawng buah chauh ni lovin, a sapṭawng buah mai pawh la ni chuang lovin, a ṭawng bulah ngei pawh bung leh châng thuhmun reng si kha ziahdan a lo dang zeuh nual tihna a nih chu. Hei hi mizoṭawng Bible lamah pawh phek hnuai lamah hian ziah belhna (marginal note) a awm ṭhin a (entir nan Luka 17:36 thu kha-O.V. Reference-*Kutziak bu ṭhenkhatah chuan châng 36 thu, “Mi pahnih lovah an awm ang a, pakhat chu kal bopuiin a awm ang a, pakhat chu hnutchhiahin a awm ang,” hi a chuang). Hei hi a awmzia chu kutziak bu hlui tak tak heng P75 (papyrus number 75-CE zabi 3na hmalama ziak) te, Codex Sinaiticus te, Codex Vaticanus te, Codex Alexandrinus te (leh kutziak bu ṭhenkhat dang te L, W, Δ,Θ,Ψ)hian châng 36-na hi an ziak tel lo tlat mai a. mahse kutziak bu hlui vek Codex Bezae hi chuan a ziak tel tlat si a ni. He thu buai hi hetah hian (a mizoṭawng Bible-ah pawh) sawi lan a ni tihna a ni. Mizo Study Bible lo chhuak tharah khan a chiang leh zual awm e. Hetiang te, kutziak bu hrang hranga awm tho si, mahse an hmandan inang chiah si lo (thumal hran hman) a awm nual a. Hetiang hi harsatna awl ai lo tak, a Thlarau ram lamah erawh pawimawh ber ni chuang kher lo, mahse thil nihna dik tak ni si a ni tlat a. English Bible lam, entir nan New Revised Standard Version lamah chuan phek kil sir hnuai lam ding lamah hian (marginal note) a inziak ṭhin a ni. Kan Bible châng hrilhfiah turah khan hetiang hi a lo awm em tih bih chian a ngai ve fo a ni.


Hei vang hian duhthusamah chuan duh tui deuh ila tiin inchah nawn a ṭha ang. Sapṭawng Bible hmang thei tan chuan kan Bible châng hrilhfiah tur kha Mizoṭawng Bible chauh rawn lovin a sapṭawng Bible lam pawh rawn ni ngei se. Duhthusamah phei chuan, hrilhfiahna rintlak tak meuh ni tur chuan, sapṭawng Bible rintlak tak pathum tal rawn ni se a ṭha ber. Heng King James Version (KJV) te, New American Standard Bible (NASB) te, New Revised Standard Version (NRSV) te, New International Version (NIV) te, New Jerusalem Bible (NJB) te hi an rintlak khawp mai. Sapṭawng Bible kan rawnte chu kan khaikhin ang a, thu pawimawh tham deuhvah an lehlindan a inan loh phei chuan fimkhur a ngai hle tihna a ni a. Chutiang dinhmunah chuan a theih hram chuan ṭawng bul lam thiamte rawn ngei a ṭha.

VII. GRAMMAR HRIAT DIK:

Ṭawng tin hian grammar kalphung kan nei ṭheuh va. Heta pawimawh hmasa tak mai chu Bible ziahna ṭawng (Hebrai leh Greek) grammar hriat dik a ni. Mahse hei hi chu hna hautak zet mai a ni a. He dan hmang tur hi chuan Bible hrilhfiahna bu ṭha deuh rawn a ṭul ang. A ti theite tan chuan hei hi pumpelh loh hram a ṭha khawp mai, a chhan chu hei hian thu pawimawh leh thu pawi tak thlengin a khawih thei a ni. Kohhran thurin leh kalphung danglamna thlenga nghawng pha a ni tlat mai.

Hetah hi chuan entîrna pakhat aia tam hman a ngai dawn a ni. Sawi tur tam tak a awm a, mahse tlem te chauh tar lang phawt ila:

1) Luka 22:19 “mi hriat reng nan hei hi ti thin rawh u” (Do this in remembrance of me) tih thua ‘ti ṭhin rawh u’ (do this) tih hi a grammar dan chuan present tense, active voice, imperative mood a ni a, tih chhun zawm tura thupek (continue to do this) a ni a, ngenna pawh a ni lo, thupek (command) a ni. Mahse hei hi hriat thiam dan a inang lo va, tih chhunzawm zel tur a nihna hre lo pawh a awm theih a ni. He thu kan hriat chian theihna ber chu grammar dan aṭang chauhvin a ni.

2) Baptisma chungchâng hi thu buaithlak tak a ni bawk. Hnim phum (immersion) leh theh/thlawr (sprinkling) thu-ah hian a buaithlak tlat bawk a. Tirh. 8:39 thua Philip-an Ethiopia mi tilreh luia a baptis khan tui aṭangin an lo chhuak a. Tui aṭanga lo chhuak sawina tan hian Greek ṭawnga εκ/εξ (ek/eks) hman a ni a, hei hi ‘a chhung aṭanga lo chhuak’ (from/out of) sawina a ni tlat mai a, tui aṭanga lo chhuak (out of water) tihna a ni tlat mai a. Hei hi an ṭanfung pakhat a ni ṭhin. Hei pawh hi a grammar kal phung aṭang chauhvin a hriat theih.

VIII. A HUAM ZAU DEUH CHHIAR TUR (LARGER CONTEXT):

Hei hi kan tih makmawh a ni. Bible châng tla hlanga (châng hnih khat chauh) innghah bur mai hi a him lo fo ṭhin. Kan thusawi/châng hrilhfiah kha châng hnih-khat chauh pawh a ni thei. Chuti a nih chuan châng dang kan chhiar duah duh lo thei bawk. Mahse mipui hriata kan chhiar tel lo a nih pawhin kan châng innghahna kha a chheh vel thu kan sawi lan tel hram a ṭha ang. Kan ziak a nih pawhin kan ti tho tur a ni. Bible châng hnih-khat kan hrilhfiah/sermon tur kha amah maia luhchilh nghal lovin a awmna paragraph emaw, a bung pumpui emaw, a ṭul dan angin kan chhiar (mipui hmaah kan chhiar ri lo a nih pawhin kan sawi lang tal tur a ni ang) tel ngei ngei tur a ni. Bible hi thu hlawm fel taka inṭhen thliah thliah a ni hlawm a. Bung khat chhunga ngei pawh hlawm fel taka ṭhen diat diat an ni ṭhin. Heng hlawm fel nelh nawlha ṭhen hi tum leh sawi bîk nei hlawm an ni fo. Hetiang tal hi a puma chhiar/ziah/bih ngun tur a ni.

Entîrna pakhat han pe ila. Matt 24:28-a "Khawiah pawh saruang awmna apiangah mulukawlhte pawh an awm khawm ang" tih hi zoram dung tluanin sermon lar leh ropui tak a ni a, hlaahte pawh an chawi nasa hle a ni. He châng bîk chauh hi thur chhuakin sa chu a thih fel hma chuan mulukawlhte pawhin an ei ngai lo va. An lo chang khiau a, an thih chianah an ei chauh ṭhin. Ringtute pawh hi kan thih hian midangte tan ei tur kan ni thei chauh va. Isua pawh a thih khan chhandamna a tleitla ta a ni, tiin mawi takin an sawi ṭhin. Mahse hei hi a huam zau zawk (larger context) kan chhiar ṭhin loh vang a ni. He thu hi Isua lo kal lehna chungchâng thu sawina daih a ni.

IX. THLUR BING LAI BÎK (IMMEDIATE CONTEXT)

hei hi a chunga mi kan bel hlarh hnua a kan hma chhawp a ni. Kan châng thur chhuah bîk khan eng nge sawi a tum, tih a ni. Eng nge thlur bing a rawn tum a, eng lam hawi nge he chângah hian kan hmuh tih kan bih chiang tawh ang.

X. A THU KALHMANG (FORM CRITICISM)

Hei hi ma thei lo va kan zawm a ngai bawk. Bible hi thu chheh (from/genre) hrang hrang infinkhawm a tih theih hial ang chu. Hla (poem) te, fakna hla (hymn, psalm) te, hrilhlawkna (prophecy) te, khuhhawnna (apocalypse) te, chanchin ziahna (history/narrative) te, thil mak lam thu (miracle story) te, tehkhinthu (parable) te, dan lam thu (legal) te leh chi hrang hrang a awm a. Hengte hi kalhmang hran ṭheuh nei an nih ang hian dan khat hmanga hrilhfiah ṭheuh chi a ni lo. Hei tak hi a hlauhawm em em a ni. Hmun tam takah hla (poem) kan hmu a. Hla an phuah hian a tlar hmasa leh a tlar hnuhnung inchhawn (parallelism) ang chi hi an uar hrep leh nghal. Hei hi hriat chian loh chuan hrilhfiah sual theih tak a ni. 

Entîrna pakhat lo pe leh ta ila:
Parallelism hi chi hrang hrang a awm a. Chu’ng zinga a pawimawh zualte chu Synonymous Parallelism, Antithetic Parallelism leh Synthetic Parallelism te an ni.[3]

Synonymous parallelism-ah chuan a tlar/châng hmasa zawka a sawi tawh kha ṭawngkam dang deuh, amaherawhchu awmze thuhmun chiah hmangin a sawi nawn leh ṭhin. A chunga Bible châng kan tarlan (Sam 103:10 leh Hab. 3:18) ang chi hi a ni; ṭawngkam hran, nimahsela awmze thuhmun sawina a ni.
Kan sualnate angin kan chungah a ti lo va,                                                                                            Kan khawlohnate angin min thungrul hek lo. (Sam 103:10).

Antithetic Parallelism-ah chuan a hma ami letling chiah kha kan hmu a. Tlar/châng hmasaa mi kawp rem chiahin, nimahsela a kawlkalhzâwng (contrast) chiah khan hman a ni ve thung a. Entîr nan Thuf. 10:1 hi lo la chhuak leh ila:
Fapa fingin pa lawm a siam a,                                                                                                             Fapa â erawh chu nu rihna ni.

Synthetic parallelism chu tlemin a zia a hrang deuh. A hmaa mite anga thu awmze thuhmun, ṭawngkam danga sawi nawnna emaw, a kalhzawng chiaha sawina emaw lam a ni lo va. Thu inzawm leh inhrul tak, amaherawhchu a thu hmasa chhanna emaw ni kher si lo hi a ni. Entîr nan Thuriltu 11:2 thu hi han en leh chhin ila:
Chan tûr pe la, mi pasarih, pariat hnênah,                                                                                                            I hre si lo, lei chungah hian thil tha lo, lo tla tûr chu.

Hei hi Hebrai parallelism kal phung chu a ni a. Man chian a ngai hle a ni. Heng bâkah hian parallelism chi hrang hrang[4] a la awm cheu tho.


Hetiang parallelism (Synonymous parallelism) hi Bible châng hmun tam takah kan hmu a. A awmzia fiah taka hrilhfiah dik thei tur chuan Bible ziaktute (Hebrai leh Greek) ṭawng kalphung kan hriat a pawimawh hle a ni. Chumi hre uk si lova Mizoṭawng kalhmang pângngai ang ngiak ngiaka hrilhfiah kan tum mai chuan a ziaktute ziah leh sawi tum dan dik tak phawk chhuak zo tak tak lovin a ṭum tlâk zak theih a. Chumi ngaihthah duhna chu Bible sawidal tumna lian tak pakhat a niin, Bible thu chah a ngial a ngana pawm lohna thûk tak a ni.

Hemi zir chiang tur hian Luka 1:46, 47 (Mari fakna hla) hi lo bih chhin ila.
Tin, Marin, “Ka nun hian Lalpa a chawimawi e,
Ka thlarau pawh mi chhandamtu Pathian chungah a lâwm ta em em a.

Mari fak hla saka Lalpa chawimawitu leh Pathian chunga lawm em em hi nunna (psyche)  leh thlarau (pneuma) a ni a. He chângah hian heng thu pahnihte hi hman kawp a ni. He châng hi trichotomy ṭanfung Ṭha tak niin mithiamte pawhin a hre ṭhin. He chângah hian kan sawi tâk Synonymous parallelism­ ruangam kha hmun hnih laiah a lo lang reng mai a. ‘Chawimawi’ tih leh ‘lâwm’ tih hi Synonymous parallelism a ni a. Chutiang bawkin nunna leh thlarau tih pawh hi Synonymous parallelism a ni.[5] Lk. 1:46, 47-ah hian thumal hran (nunna leh thlarau) hman ni mah se Synonymous parallelism ziarâng kan sawi tawh ang khan mihring chhunga thil pahnih, nunna (soul) leh thlarau (spirit) sawi hranna a ni lova, a sawi ngai vêk sawi nawn lehna, Synonymous parallelism a ni zawk a ni. Nunna leh thlarau tia Marin a sawi hian ‘amah leh amah’ (self) a insawi mai a ni.[6]

Tehkhin thu chungchâng hi sawi leh lawk ang. Tehkhinthu Isuan a sawite hi an ṭangkaiin an ngaihnawm hlawm hle a. Mite pawhin an dawngsawng ṭha hle a ni ngei bawk ang. Tehkhinthu hi chi hrang hrangin hrilhfiah an lo tum tawh ṭhin a. Hei hi kohhran chanchina hman lai thil emaw kan ti liam ngawt thei lo vang, a chhan chu tunlai pawhin tehkhinthu hrilhfiahna chungchângah kan la inkal thelh nasa tlat a ni. Hetiang hian an lo ngai ṭhin a:


1) Entir nei veka hrilhfiahna (allegorical interpretation)

Kristianna a lo ngial ngheh chhoh va, kohhran hun hmasa lamah khan kohhran pate khan hei hi an uar viau. An ngaihdanah chuan tehkhinthua a englai mai pawh khan awmzia an nei vek a ni. Entirna langsar tak mai chu Samari mi ṭha kha a ni (Lk. 10:30-37). Mi pakhat kha Adama a ni a, Jerusalem tih kha vanram sawina a ni a; suamhmang kha setana a ni a, samari mi ṭha kha Isua Krista tihna a ni. Chutiang zelin eng kim mai kha awmzia an pe vek mai a ni.

2) Kawh tum pakhat chauh neia hrilhfiahna

Adolf Julicher-a (1888, 1899) khan tehkhinthu hrilhfiahna lamah khan rahbi pawimawh taka tuk a. Ani ngaihdan chuan a chunga kan sawi, entîr nei veka hrilhfiahna (allegorical) hi a dik lo va. Isua tehkhinthute hi awlsam leh mawl mang te te, mi naran tan pawha hriatthiam mai theih an ni a, hrilhfiah leh hran pawh an ngai chuang lo, a ti. Kawh tum pakhat chauh a nei ṭhin a, chumi sawifiah nan chuan khaikhinna/tehkhinna a hmang mai a ni a ti.

C. H. Dodd leh Joachim Jeremias-a te an rawn lar chho va. Anni hi mithiam chungchuang tak mai an ni a. 1935-1970 chhung khan nghawng an nei lian hle. Anni hi Julicher-a zirtirna khan a chiah hneh hle bawk. C. H. Dodd-a phei hi chu a châng phei chuan a kal na mah mah ve tho va. Khawvel buh seng thu kha ani ngaihdan chuan hun tawpa rorelna lo thleng tur sawina ni lovin Isua mihring mihrin laia a rawngbawlna sawina a ni, a ti.

Anni hnuah phei hi chuan tehkhinthu hi thil pakhat sawifiah nana tehkhin/khaikhin tur dang dah a ni a, ṭawngkam tinrengte hian awmze hran nei duah lovin tum pakhat a nei tlang ran a, chumi sawifiahna atana thawnthu inzep ve mai zawk a ni tih ngaihdan hi a lian hle.[7] Hei hi tunlaiah chuan mithiamte ngaihdan tlangpui a ni tawh a. Thil ni thei tak pawh a ni reng a ni. Mi ṭhenkhat chuan Luka 15 thua bo pathumte: Duli Bo, Beram Bo leh Fapa Tlan Bo chungchâng pawh hi allegorical interpretation hmang hian hrilhfiah an tum ṭhin a, Duli bova bo, Beram bova bo, titein an hrilhfiah ṭhin. Mahse hei hi a hunlai leh a ziaktute Khawvel ngaihtuah chuan an tum ber niin a lang lem lo.

XII. CHANG TIN HRILHFIAHNA:

hei hi chu kan tihdan tlangpui a ni a. Hemi chhungah hian hriat tur pawimawh tak a la awm leh a. Kan châng thlur bingah khan thumal/thu hlawm (phrase) pawimawh zual bîk a awm em tih kan zawn chhuah a ngai a ni. Thu ṭhenkhat hi chu pawimawh zual bîk, hrilhfiah kher ngai bîkte an ni fo ṭhin a. A ziaktuten hman tum bîk dan an nei em tih te, a hunlai mipui leh khawtlang dinhmun a pho lang thei em tih te, a hunlaia hman bîk ṭawngkam a ni em tih te leh zawn chhuah tur pawimawh tak a lo awm reng em tih zawn chhuah kawngah mit fim a ngai khawp mai.

XIII. ṬHAM KAWPNA

Kan Bible chang hrilhfiah tawh leh kan tunlai hun atana a ṭangkaina hi a thuchah pawimawh vawrtawp a rawn thlenna pawh a ni thei bawk. Bible chang hrilhfiahna kalphung pangngaiah chuan hei hi tih makmawh a ni kher lo nain ngaithlatu nei (thuhril) kan nih chuan hei hi a vawrtawp a ni thei thung. Hetah hi chuan thil pahnih: chhuk leh chho kan zawm a ni. Thuziak (Bible) kha a nihna dik thei ang berin kan chhawp chhuak tawh a. A hunlai khawvel leh thil nihphung kan sawi chiang tawh a. Chutiang chiah chuan kan sawina tur khawvel hi kan hriat chian a ngai leh tawh thung a ni. Hei hi kan tlachham a nih chuan kan hlawhchham leh tho vang. Kan thu ngaithla/chhiartute chu kan hre chiang tur a ni a. An sukthlek, an hriatthiam theihzawng leh an dinhmun pawimawh tak takte kan hriatsak a ngai a ni. Hemi tel lo chuan thuchah a la famkim thei chuang lo.


[1] J. H. Ropes, The Synoptic Gospels (1934), 103f., quoted  in Donald Guthrie, New Testament Introduction: The Gospels and Acts (London: The Tyndale Press, 1965), 31.
[2] Gordon D. Fee, “Textual Criticism of the New Testament,” in Eldon Jay Epp and Gordon D. Fee, Studies in the Theory and Method of New Testament Textual Criticism (Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1993), 3.
[3]  Adele Berlin, “Parallelism,” ABD.
[4] Chiastic Parallelism, Staircase Parallelism, Emblematic Parallelism, Janus Parallelism etc.
[5] John Nolland, Word Biblical Commentary Volume 35a Luke 1–9:20.
[6] Ibid.
[7] Archibald. M. Hunter, Interpreting the Parables (Philadelphia: The Westminster Press, 1960), 13.

No comments:

Post a Comment