Image result for chakma

By: Suman Chakma

Why the Chakma History Association (CHA) is a must? 

Due to lack of authentic record, documents/evidences, datas, of the origin of the Chakmas, Scholars differ on the origin and history of Chakma or ancient Chakma history, as there are no written historical references to the Chakmas before the 10th century A.D. However, from the 10th century A.D. on wards, there are references to the existence of the Chakma people in the Burmese and Arakanese history. The accounts of Hutchinson, Capt. Lawin and others could not give proper light on the origin of the Chakmas. Their accounts also seem to be based on hearsay and manipulated histories as the Hindus tried to show the Chakmas as Hindoos and the Muslims as Mohamedans. The Chakma chronological history, called 'BIJOK' also seems self-contradictory sometimes. However, all the writers boasted of the originality of their manuscripts and that the original manuscript was written in Bamunih (Brahmi) and on Palm Leaves which have been handed over to them by their elders stating those were recorded by their forefathers. The legendary folklore singers, Geinghulees (folk songs) also fail to give a consistent account of the origin of the Chakmas. All these Bijoks and the folk songs based on traditional beliefs which have been transmitted from generation to generation. However, all the writers of 'BIJOK' and 'GEINGHULEE' singers mostly agree on the following points on the origins and history of the Chakmas that - 

1. Chakmas are Suryo Vangshi and Khattriya, 
2. They are the descendants of the Sakyas, 
3. Their original capital was Kalapnagar, 
4. Their second capital was Champaknagar, 

5. They conquered new land to the south-west of 'CHAMPAKNAGAR' by crossing the river Lohita and named it Kalabagha after the able General. The capital of this new land was also named Champaknagar after the previous Capital. From this Champaknagar, the prince and the Governor of Kalabagha, Bijoygiri led expedition against the Mugal (Mongol) with the help of the Hosui Troops, provided by the King of Tripura. 

6. During this expedition, Radha Mohan and Kunjha Dhan were his commanders and they conquered many countries which include the Magh, Kukis, Axas, Khyengs, Kanchana Desha, and other kingdoms making Chadigang as their base. These expeditions said to have lasted for twelve years for Radha Mohan and Khunja Dhan. 

On receipt of the news of conquering new land by Radha Mohan and Khunja Dhan, Bijoygiri went forward up to Safrai Valley to receive the commanders and returned back to Chadigang with them. Here, he learnt the news of his father’s death and of his younger brother ascending of throne. After seven days of mourning for his father, he decided not to return to the Kingdom but establish a new Kingdom at Safrai Valley. He also gave option to his men to return to the old Kingdom or live with him. Radha Mohan is said to have returned and Khunja Dhan remained with him. He also permitted his men to marry girls from the defeated kingdom. He himself married an ARI girl and thus established a new Kingdom named RAMPUDI (Ramavati) at the Safrai Valley. Afterwards, Kalabagha Kingdom was annexed by the Tripura King and communication with the old Champaknagar was totally cut off. The capital of the Chakma kingdom was later named Manijgir. In 1333, Burmese king Mengdi or Minthi with the help of the Portuguese attacked Manijgir or Moisagiri through deceitful means and brought its downfall. He made King Arunjug his captive along with the subjects and settled them in different places. After a hard attempt a group of the Chakmas could somehow make a habitation at MONGZAMBROO. After sometime they had to flee again to CHOKKAIDAO of Kaladan due to unbearable atrocities of the Magh. From Chokkaidao, they sought permission for settlement in Bengal and Nawab Jalaluddin, the son of Raja Ganesh granted them settlement in twelve villages at Chadigang. It was only in 1418 they could flee to Bengal and settle in twelve places leaving behind the group of Doinaks and the followers of the second prince, in Burma, where they lived for about 100 years. There the people intermarried with the Burmese and gradually adopted the Buddhist religion. From these twelve villages, after many ups and downs, the Chakma Kingdom was established at Chittagong Hills Tract (CHT), in or around sixteenth century, when Bangladesh was governed by Muslim rulers, before the arrival of the British. Then, the British transformed it into a mere Circle. The said Chittagong Hill Tracts was awarded to Pakistan in 1947 during India’s independence. 

It is believe that, on arrival in CHT, the Chakma Chiefs had made a business contract with the Muslim rulers, promising to pay revenue or tax in cotton. In return they were allowed to live in the hill region and engage in trade with the larger society. By the late eighteenth century, British authorities had established themselves in the southeastern districts (commonly called CHT) of Bangladesh. The British formally recognized a definite territory of the Chakma raja (the paramount chief). In 1776, Sherdoulat Khan became the Chakma Raja. He fought unsuccessfully against the British. Further fighting between the Chakma and the British took place between 1783 and 1785. In 1787, Raja Janbux Khan, son of Sherdoulat Khan, made a peace treaty with the British government, promising to pay the latter 500 maunds of cotton. The British recognized the office of Chakma Raja throughout the rest of their rule. Different Chakma Rajas maintained good relations with the authorities of central administration and the Chakma increasingly came in contact with the Bengali people and culture. 

According to the Chakma historians, the rulers of the Royal Chakma Kingdom was most powerful ever than others Raja (King) in this region in the 6 th century. As per as Chakma historians as well as early Buddhist historical evident that the Chakma Raja Bijoygiri, belong from Campa or Champaknagr (now Bhagalpur) in the Kingdom of Anga which was Bengal (now West Bengal and Bihar); came and settled down in the present Jummaland along with his Royal family and large military troops. His father, Raja Samargiri, who was belong from Sakya clan and was most powerful ruler of Kingdom of Anga in the early 6 th century. He had two sons, named Prince Bijoygiri and Prince Udaigiri. 

The following prominent Chakma Raja's are: 

1. Raja Samargiri (6th century): Chakma Raja Samargiri was the ruler of the Kingdom of Anga now Bihar and West Bengal). Its capital city was Campa or Champaknagar (now Bhagalpur in West Bengal). Some other important cities are Bhaddiya, Assapura, Kacangala, Girivraja, etc. The people are mostly living Sakyas in the Kingdom and they are Sakyamuni clan, who founded Buddhism in India in 544 BC. Raja Samargiri has two son, named Prince Bijoygiri and Prince Udaigiri. After his died, his son Prince Udaigiri became king in the Kingdom of Anga. 

2. Raja Udaigiri (651 AD-745 AD): In around 680 AD, Prince Udaigiri became successor of his father. He was ruled the Kingdom of Anga until 745 AD. But the two brothers lost their relationship from centuries to centuries. According to historical, cultural, logistic and linguistics evident that the group who was under the younger brother Raja Udaigiri, the ruler of Anga the people at present living in Nepal, Garo Hills in Meghalaya, Darjeeling in West Bengal. And the group who was under elder brother Raja Bojoygiri, who established Royal Chakma Kingdom, they are the Chakmas, Chak, Tanchangya, Dainak, Thek, Tsak living in Tripura State, Jummaland, Mizoram, Arakan State, etc.

3. Raja Bijoygiri (605-698 AD): In 630 AD, he was conquered Tamarlipitka countries (now Assam, West Bengal, Meghalaya, Arunachal, etc.) and whole region bring under his the Region permanently. In around648-49 AD, build a Royal Buddhist Temple named “Raj Benuvan Buoddha Vihar” at Anguli (nowAgartala). After ten years ruled in the Region (645-665 AD), he further decided to march toward the east in order to conquered new territories. When they arrived in the eastern Region (Hill Tracts, Cox's Bazaar,Chittagong, Rangunia, etc.) was “no man land” during that periods. So, without any battles and less effort, Chakma Raja Bijoygiri occupied and captured the whole Regions under his control. The no man land areas became under the Royal Chakma Kingdom. In 666 AD, he was transferred his capital city fromRangamati (now Udaipur) of Tripura to Rangamati of Hill Tracts permanently. In 674 AD, he captured the Kingdom of Kuki and his only son Prince Devagiri has been killed by the Kuki army during the war. From 645- 680 AD, the areas of Hill Tracts, Cox's Bazaar, Chittagong, Rangunia, Kingdom of Tripuraand Kuki Territory was under the Royal Chakma Kingdom control by the Chakma Raja Bijoygiri, than was most powerful King in this Region. In 682 AD, he further conquered the Kingdom of Roang (nowArakan State of Myanmar). Chakma Raja Bijoygiri became a great powerful King ever had seen in the history of Chakma Dynasty. In 698 AD, he was died at the old age of 93 years at the capital city of Roang. After he died, his successors gradually lost the whole territories from Roang King, Kuki King and Tripuri King. 

4. From 7-10th centuries: No any Chakma Raja's appeared in the Chakma history that the Royal Chakma Kingdom was under the control of Roang Raja's and Tripura Raja's, who was the powerful Kings, ruled for 300 years in this Regions. 

5. Raja Kamal Chega (1095-1179 AD): After 300 years ruled by the Roang and Tripura Raja's; theChakma Raja Kamal Chega reunified the Chakma Kingdom Movement in Roang in 1118 AD. His wifeQueen Manikbi also morally supported the movement to unified the Royal Chakma Kingdom. After build his large armies, Raja Kamal Chega fought with Magh King of Roang in 1118 AD. The battle was lasted over one year. He was recaptured the Kingdom of Roang and bring the whole Kingdom including Roang, Hill Tracts, Chittagong, Rangunia and Cox's Bazaar under his control in 1119 AD. He established Royal Chakma Kingdom in the Regions. In 1122 AD, he shifted the Royal capital from Roang to Raja Nagar of Rangunia permanently. Later in 1125 AD, he recaptured the Kingdom of Tripura and some adjacent areas of the Regions. Since than Royal Chakma Dynasty became powerful and existed. He was established his ruled more than 60 years. In 1179 AD, at the age of 84, he was died at Raja Nagar of Rangunia and his successors lost the Kingdom partly (Feni Valley and Khagrachari division) from the King of Tripura in1240 AD. 

6. Raja Marekyaja (14 th century): Raja Marekyaja recaptured the Regions from the King of Tripura and the Kuki Territory and established his ruled 14th century. The whole Regions was then an independent Buddhist Kingdom ruled by Chakma Raja's until 1575 AD. But, in 1575 AD, the Chakma Raja's lost theRoang Kingdom in the battle from Arakan King and continued possession the Regions till 1666 AD by theArakan King. In fact this region frequently changed hands between the rulers of Chakmas, Tripuras and Arakanes King from 7 th-15th centuries. 

7. Raja Julab Khan (1639-1681 AD): In 1666 AD, Chakma Raja Julab Khan recaptured the Kingdom of Arakan including Chittagong, Hill Tracts and Kuki Territory. Later in 1671 AD, he captured the Kingdom of Tripura. He was died at the young age of 42 years in 1681 AD in the Royal Palace of Raja Nagar, Rangunia. 

8. Raja Sulab Khan (1651-1686 AD): After the Raja Julab Khan died, his son Prince Sulab Khan, became King in the Royal Chakma Kingdom in 1681 AD and he was ruled only for 5 years. 

9. Raja Kalu Khan (1662-1700 AD): Raja Kalu Khan became successors of the Royal Chakma Kingdomin 1686 AD. He was ruled for 24 years until 1700 AD. 

10. Raja Fateh Khan (1671-1725 AD): In 1700 AD, he became a successors of the Royal Chakma Kingdom; in 1705 AD, Raja Fateh Khan captured two canons in the battle from the Mughal Empire and in 1713 AD, he was made a “Peace Treaty”. 

11. Raja Jalal Khan (1707-1737 AD): Raja Jalal Khan became a King in the Royal Chakma Kingdom in1725 AD. He was re-established the treaty with the Mughal Nawab. He was ruled the Kingdom for 12 years. 

12. Raja Shermusta Khan (1712-1773 AD): In 1737 AD, Raja Shermusta Khan became Raja in theKingdom. On 15 October 1760 AD, the British led several military expeditions against the Chakma Raja Shermusta Khan to establish their colonial footing in the Royal Chakma Kingdom. During the Raja Shermusta Khan ruled, the geographical area was bounded by the Nizampur Road and Bay of Bengal to the west, 1/3rd Kuki Territory to the east, the Feni River to the north and Sangu Rivers to the south. The first battle of the Raja Shermusta Khan with East India Company ensued in 1772 AD and subsequent battles with Raja Sher Dawlat Khan from 1777 to 1780 AD, it was lasted four years. 

13. Raja Sher Dawlat Khan (1750-1780 AD): In 1773 AD, Raja Sher Dawlat Khan became successors of the Royal Chakma Kingdom. He was fought with the British from 1777 to 1780 AD, and lasted for four years. 

14. Raja Jan Bux Khan (1757-1787 AD): In 1780 AD, Raja Jan Bux Khan, became successors of the Kingdom. In 1782 AD, Raja Jan Bux Khan and his Supreme-General Rono Khan formally battles against the British East India Company. Finally, he was compelled to signed a “Peace Treaty” in 1787 AD, which named as “Cotton Treaty” with the East India Company at Fort William in Calcutta. The war was ended when the British had imposed an economic blockade and forced the Chakma Raja Jan Bux Khan for a negotiation settlement. This was the beginning of the British hegemony over the Royal Chakma Kingdom. 

The subject matter of the treaty between the Governor General of British and the Chakma Raja Jan Bux Khan was as follows: (1) The East India Company recognised Jan Bux Khan as the Raja of the Royal Chakma Kingdom; (2) It was agreed that the collection of revenue was the responsibility of Raja; (3) The British government would preserve Chakma Autonomy and migration from the plains; (4) Jan Bux Khanwas bound by the treaty to maintain peace in his Royal Chakma Kingsom; (5) British troops would remain in the Royal Chakma Kingdom not to terrify the Chakmas but to protect the land from the inroads of the fierce tribes. 

15. Raja Tabur Khan (1765-1798 AD): In 1787 AD, Raja Tabur Khan became King in the Royal Chakma Kingdom. 

16. Raja Jabbar Khan (1767-1815 AD): In 1798 AD, he became successors of the Royal Chakma Kingdom. 

17. Raja Dharam Bux Khan (1794-1831 AD): In 1815 AD, he became successors of the Kingdom. 

18. Raja Shukdev Roy (1810-1851 AD): In 1831 AD, became successor of the Royal Chakma Kingdom.The Royal Palace was located at Rajanagar of Rangunia. According to archaeological evident that a Royal Buddhist Temple named “Dharma Chakra Vihar” was established in 1750 AD at Rajanagar by the Chakma Raja Shukdev Roy. 

19. Queen Kalindi Rani (1830-1873 AD): In 1851 AD, she became first Chakma Queen in the Royal Chakma Kingdom under the British East India Company. In 1852 AD, she was established Ranir Pond (now Raja Hat) at Rajanagar. During her rule on June 20, 1860 AD, the Royal Chakma Kingdom was divided into two parts as Chadigang (Chittagong) and Chittagong Hill Tracts-CHT or Parbatya Chittagong by the British East India Company without her concerned (Notification No 3302). Former part is known as “ Chadigang or Chittagong” which was included into Bengal as a regulated district and later part is known as CHT Region, which was retained as non-regulated district with a limited Autonomy under the Governor-General of British India. Since than the Chittagong district separated from the Royal Chakma Kingdom and administration gone from the hand of Chakma Rani Kalindi. Queen Kalindi was strongly resisted against the British decision on the creation of CHT Region. In 1864 AD, she was invited to Venerable Saramitra Mahathera of Arakan to established Bhikkhu Sangha lineage in the Royal Chakma Kingdom. By Royal patronage, Venerable visited along with a group of Sangha member an organised Upasampada ordination at Chadigang and Rangamati. More than 20 Buddhist monks took higher ordination from Chakma and Marma communities. Since than Theravada Buddhism is existed in the Kingdom. According to historical evident that 117 years (1757-1874 AD), Rajanagar of Rangunia was the capital city of the Kingdom and was by the Chakma Raja's independently. 

20. Raja Pagla Mama Daroga (1834-1874 AD): In 1873 AD, Raja Pagla Mama Daroga became King in the Kingdom for one year. 

21. Raja Harish Chandra Roy Bahadur (1853-1876 AD): In 1874 AD, Raja Harish Chandra Roy Bahadur became successor of the the Kingdom. He was transferred the capital from Rajanagar of Rangunia to Rangamati in 1874 AD. 

22. Raja Bhuvan Mohan Roy (1856-1934 AD): In 1876 AD, Raja Bhuvan Mohan Roy, son of Raja Harish Chandra Roy Bahadur became Raja of the Royal Chakma Kingdom. 

23. Raja Nalininako Roy (1902-1952 AD): In 1934 AD, Raja Nalininako Roy, son of Raja Bhuvan Mohan Roy became Raja in the Kingdom. 

24. Raja Tridiv Roy (1933- ): In 1952 AD, Raja Tridiv Roy, son of Raja Nalininako Roy became Raja in the Royal Chakma Kingdom. In 19 47 AD, he was fled to Pakistan for political reason. He died in Pakistan on September 17, 2012. 

25. Raja Devashis Roy (1959- ): In 1947 AD, after fled Raja Tridiv Roy to Pakistan, his son Raja Devashis Roy became Raja in the Royal Chakma Kingdom. Since 1947 AD, to till today, he is theChakma Raja in the Royal Chakma Kingdom. His son, Prince Tribhuwan Arydev Roy was born in 1990 AD. Unfortunately, his wife Rani Tatu Roy was died in 1998 AD, for cancer at Dakha Medical College in Bangladesh. 

PARTITION OF INDIA: Injustice done to the Chakmas 
  • During Partition (August 1947), India was divided on the religious line. 
  • Muslim-majority areas went to form Pakistan. 
  • Surprisingly, Chakma-dominated Chittagong Hill Tracts of present day Bangladesh formed part of Pakistan even though Muslims were only meager 2 %. 
  • The Partition axed the Chakma life. It was the doom day. 
  • The Chakmas have been patriots. 
  • They fought against the British, and did not allow the conquerors to conquer them. 
  • Following the Partition, they were celebrating the Independence Day on 15 August 1947 by unfurling the Indian tricolour in Rangamati, the main town of CHT. 
  • It was pity that they did not even know they were already Pakistanis, much against their own will. The Pakistani troops pull down the Indian flag. 

The Chakmas could not give a united stand against the injustice done. Indian government did not do much significant. It failed to recognize the Chakmas’ contributions and sacrifices during the freedom movement. 


  • Given the communal division between India and Pakistan, that the Buddhist Chakmas would be persecuted in Muslim Pakistan was a foregone conclusion. 
  • Chakmas were brutally killed, tortured, attacked and their women folk raped under the Pakistan rule. 
  • In 1964, the Kaptai Dam reservoir was built that submerged around 44% of the CHT’s agricultural lands and made tens of thousand Chakmas homeless and foodless. 
  • Those displaced were neither rehabilitated nor compensated nor treated well. Thousands became IDPs and refugees. 
  • In 1971, Bangladesh was liberated with India’s help. 
  • But that did not bring any change in the policy of the Muslim government towards the Chakmas. 
  • With active participation of the Bangladesh military, the Chakmas were attacked, massacred, kidnapped, and raped and their houses burned. 
  • There was no reprieve. Life was no longer livable. Hundreds fled from their homes to escape from attempts at their lives. 


  • The Rulers have turned into Refugees, courtesy the brutal policies of the successive governments of Pakistan and Bangladesh. 
  • In 1964, around 30,000 indigenous Chakmas displaced by the Kaptai HydroElectric dam in CHT of then East Pakistan migrated to India. 
  • They were given settlement by the government of India in the North Eastern Frontier Agency (NEFA), the present Arunachal Pradesh, after consultation with the local tribal chiefs. 
  • While being shifted to the NEFA, Government of India issued valid migration certificates to the migrants and assured them of citizenship rights in due course. 
  • “They came in a hopeless, pathetic condition, just with the clothes that they wore” recalls one senior Mizoram official, who was part of the Assam government team that received the Chakma in the Cachar and Lushai hills. 

How the Chakmas are lagging behind the Mizos in Mizoram? 

Establishment of the North East India History Association (NEIHA): 

The establishment of the North East India History Association (NEIHA) in 1979 has served an eye opener and encouragement on the part of Mizo historian to initiate an association on Mizo history. They were convinced that wrong and vested interest interpretation on history is very harmful and therefore it needs very careful handling since it involves the vital question of national integrity and of communal and racial sentiments of the people. With this end in view, Mizo History Association (MHA) was formed on September 23, 1980 in the office chamber of Darchhawna, Officer –On-Special Duty, NEHU, Mizoram University Campus, by an august body of a few members of Mizo historian. The founder President was Darchhawna while the founder General Secretary was Lalrimawia, Lecturer and Head of Department of History, Pachhunga University College, Aizawl. The main objective of the association is the promotion and encouragement of the scientific study, systematic writing, analysis and research of the history of the Mizos, holding of conference, seminars and symposium connected with the said history and publication of the proceedings, journals and other works of the Association. The Association was registered with No. SR 1 of 1981 under the Society Registration Act XXI of 1860 on January 23, 1981. The first General election cum General conference was held on October 25, 1980 at Mizoram State Library Hall, Aizawl. 

Post a Comment

Powered by Blogger.