LUSEI DUHLIAN ȚAWNG By Dr Malsawmliana - TIMES OF MIZORAM

26 Apr 2019

LUSEI DUHLIAN ȚAWNG By Dr Malsawmliana

LUSEI DUHLIAN ȚAWNGMizo hnahthlakte zingah hian ṭawng hrang nei kan awm nual a, Chung zingah chuan Lusei ṭawng (Duhlian ṭawng an tih) hi a lar ber leh a hmangtu pawh tam ber, tlanglawn ber a ni. Chutih rualin he ṭawng hi engtia lo piangchhuak nge tih chu chhui chian har tak a ni thung. A lo rik chhuahna erawh chu a hnam hming putu Lusei ho erawh an ni ngei ang.

Hemi chungchangah hian Lalhmuaka chuan heti hian a ziak, “Zoram chhunga Mizo ṭawng hi a bul chu Lusei ṭawng a ni chiah a, mahse Lusei ṭawng pawh hi Hualngo ṭawng aṭanga lo chhuak a ni. Hualngo ṭawng hi Lusei ṭawng dik tak a ni.” “An chhut danah chuan Luseiho lal thlahtu chu Hualngo an nih thu leh Seipui hmuna an awm laia Luseiin Lal an neih ṭan laia Lusei lalho thlahtu Zahmuaka pa Chhuahlawma enkawl seiliantu chu Hualngo ho an nih vang a ni awm e.”

“Duhlian” ṭawng an tih hi tuna kan hman mek, Mizo ṭawng kan tih mai hi a ni a. Lusei hnamin an hman hi a ni. ‘Duhlian’ chungchangah hian ngaihdan a phir hle a, Duhlian hnam an awm leh awm loh thuah pawh ngaihdan a inpersan viau bawk. Ziaktu ṭhenkhat ziah dan han tarlang ila.

Thawngling, Hualngo, Siallam Lal-in a lehkhabu ziah “Chin Mizo Chanchin Bu (Chin Hills tlangmite History)” ah chuan Duhlai hnam an awm thu a tarlang a, “Duhlian hnam hrang hrangte chu Ṭiau leh Run inkara hnunglama sam zial zawng zawngte’ niin a tarlang a, chunte chu –

1)Chawngthua thlah Thadou thenkhatte,
2)Chawngthua thlah Lusei zinga Chawngthu hote,
3)Chawngthua thlah Pautu-Ninel hote;
4)Ngente ho te,
5)Chawhte hote,
6)Hnamte hote,
7)Lawitlang hote,
8)Kawilam hote;
9) Renthlei hote,
10) Lusei thlah hrang hrang leh Vaiphei hote an ni”.13

A sawi zel dan chuan Duhlian zingah hian Seipui leh a chhehvela Luseiho chu an lo huaisen bik deuhva Duhlian ho zinga lalna leh sakhaw vawngtu an lo ni ta a, Duhlian intih aiin Seifa/ Lusei intih an lo duh ta zawk a mi.

Hetih lai hian R. Vanlawma chuan Duhlian hnam an awm a hriat loh thu a sawi thung a, tuna Mizo ṭawng kan hman hi Duhlian ṭawng a nih loh thu a sawi bawk.14 Duhlian lo chhuah dan hetiang hian a ziak :

“…Mahsela an chhuk ve duh avangin luhsum chu an pe a, mahsela Hualngo ho khan unau mah ni sela Ṭiau rala an lo indo tawh avangin an lawm thei lova, Sailo ho chu tuna Mizoram pum hi an lo hauh tlat avangin duh lian hi an ti ta em em a, ‘Duhlian ho’ an lo ti ta reng a ni. Hualhang ho chu Sailo hnuaiah an lo intulut a, Hualngo erawh chuan a changin Sailo chu an dova, vawikhat phei chu Lallula fapa Vuta ramvak Thentlangah an lo man a, an kawl leh ngam si lova, Falamah an pe ta ringawt a nih kha.


“Falamin a lo chhuah leh khan, Lallula’n Thlanrawn a rawt dawn a, mi dang a rawt tel duh loh, a chhuah tirte khan lawmthu sawi nan Vuta chhuk thla tur chu an veng ta a. Tiau an kan thla a, Vanzau an thlen chuan “Tunah chuan van a zau tawh e, i ram i thleng ta” an ti a, an kalsan ta kha a ni a. Chutiang chu Duhlian lo chhuahna bul hi a ni a, sawi rik fo chi pawh a ni lova, hriat loh tum tlat chi a ni hial zawk a ni.”

Dr.Vumson sawi dan ve thung chuan “Sailo lal te kha Chhakchhuak/ Hualngo emaw Lusei ho mi te an ni a. Sailo lal ten Lusei ṭawng chu an hmang chho ta ze1 a, mipui hnenah chhiah sang tak tak an ngen ṭhin a. Sa-ah pawh ke pali nei lo chu an dawng duh lova, ke pahnih nei an pek chuan an pawm sak duh lo ṭhin a. Chumi aṭang chuan “duh lian” nih an hlawh ta a. Sailo lal, Lallula hun lai khan ṭawng tualleng a ching chhuak a, Lusei ṭawng pawh tlema tidanglamin tuna Duhlian ṭawng hi a lo chhuak ta a ni” a ti.15

Hrangthiauva leh Lalchungnunga te ziak ‘Mizo Chanchin’ ah chuan Duhliana thlahte hi Khampatah an awm thu an ziak a. Duhliana tupa chu Lusei a ni a; Luseia hian fapa pathum -Chhakchhuaka, Tochuanga, Thangpuia a nei a. A thlah kal zel te hian Duhlian ṭawng an hmang zui ta a, mahse an awmna hmunin a zir loh avanga hmang zui ta lo te pawh an awm, tiin an ziak.16

B.Lalthangliana chuan Duhlian tih chu Paite (Zomi), Thado leh Vaiphei ten Lusei ho an koh dan niin a ngai thung. A hranpain Duhlian hnam an awm a ring lo. 17

Anni bakah hian Mizo History leh ṭawng chungchang ziaktu eng emaw zatin ‘Duhlian’ ṭawng chungchang an ziak a, Duhlian ṭawng kan tih leh Lusei ho ṭawng hi thuhmun a nih thu an ziak hlawm bawk. Lusei ho sawi nan Duhlianho tiin an sawi fo ṭhin bawk.

Hemi chungchang chik taka chhuitu C. Chhuanvawra chuan, ‘Seipui leh Lusei khaw danga awmte chuan Duhlian ṭawng chu fir takin an hmang chho zel a, chuti taka Lusei hnam ten kum 200 lai mai an han hman hnu chuan Duhlian ṭawng chu Lusei ṭawng tih a lo ni fo ve ta a. Duhlian dangte pawhin la hmang tho mah se, a neitu chan channa chen a lo awm lo thei lova, Lusei ṭawng tih chu Duhlian ṭawng sawi dan chi khat a ni ve ta a ni.” tiin a ziak.18

Eng pawh nise, a chunga kan sawi tak aṭanga lang chiang ta chu, Duhlian hnam an awm leh awm loh chu hriat phak a ni tawh lo nain Lusei ho ṭawng hman chu Duhlian kan tih tak chu niin a lang. Pu R.Vanlawma pawh hian ‘Mizo ṭawng hi Duhlian ṭawng a ni lo’ a han ti tak nain, tuna kan ṭawng hman (Mizo ṭawng) hi Lusei ho ṭawng (Duhlian an tih mai) kal zel kha niin a lang bawk.

Eng vangin nge Lusei/Duhlian ṭawng kan hman tlanglawn tak ? :


Zo hnahthlak hnam hrang hrangte hian ṭawng bik an nei deuh fur a, an ṭawng hman te erawh a inzul hlawm hle a, tlema danglam deuh hlek ni a lang chu Mara (Lakher) ṭawng hi a ni awm e.

Mizo hnam peng thenkhat ṭawng, a bikin Mizoram chhunga kan hman ṭhin te han tarlang ila. Ralte ṭawng hi Lusei ṭawng nen inzul tak a mi a, chutih rualin tunah chuan a thiam pawh an tlem ta hle a, a ral titih chu a ni ta. Tunhma chuan Kolasib tlangdungah hian Ralte an ṭhahnem ṭhin a, Ralte ṭawng pawh an hmang nasa ṭhin a. Heng bakah hian Serchhip, North Vanlaiphai, Thenzawl, Mizoram hmar tlangdung (Darlawn, Serzawl etc.) ah te an hmang leh a, mahse tunah chuan hmang hi an awm tawh mang lova, thiam pawh an tlem viau tawh awm e.19 Tunhnaiah a bo mai loh nan tiin Ralte Study Forum ten kum 2012 khan Thuthlung Thar Bible chu Ralte ṭawngin an letling a, hemi bakah hian mimal thahnemngai leh Ralte Welfare Committee te chuan Ralte ṭawng vawnhimna turin nasa takin hma an 1a bawk a.20 Amaherawhchu a hmangtu an awm tawh loh avangin a thih mai hlauhawm hle a ni.

Mizoram chhunga ṭawng kan hman lar pakhat chu Paihte ṭawng hi a ni. Paihte hnamah hian chi peng engemaw zat an awm a, mahse hengte hian ṭawng bik an nei vek chuang lova, chutih rualin Paihte hnam hian ṭawng chi 10 (sawm) an nei thung a, chungte chu : Lamzang, Dapzar, Bukpi, Tuichiap, Losau, Teizang, Sihzang, Dim, Sukte, Saizang te an ni a, heng zinga hian Dapzar leh Teizang ṭawngte hi hman tlanglawn deuh an ni.” Tunah hian Mizoram chhunga Paihte ṭawng an hman tamna lai chu Mizoram hmarchhak tlang dung, Manipur ep bawr vel leh Sialkal tlang dung vel hi a ni awm e. Heng lai bawra an hman tlanglawn ber chu Dapzar ṭawng hi a ni a, chutih laiin Leisenzo leh Sesih bawr velah erawh chuan Teizang ṭawng an hmang thung.

Hetih lai hian tunhnai kum 50/60 chhovah Paihte ṭawng inchawhpawlh a lo chhuak a, chu Tedim ṭawng an ti a, hei hi Paihte hnam hrang hrang ṭawng (Sihzang, Teizang etc.) inchawhpawlh a ni a, he ṭawng hi Burma lamah an hmang uar a, Champhai bawr velah pawh hian an hmang tam hle niin an sawi. Hetiang chiah hian Manipur lamah pawh Paihte ṭawng hrang hrang inchawhpawlh ‘Lamka ṭawng’ hi an hmang lar viau bawk. Tedim ṭawng leh Lamka ṭawng hi Paihte ṭawng chawhpawlh ve ve a ni nain a inang chuang lo bawk.22 Hengte hi Paihte ṭawng thar a ni awm e. Amaherawhchu Paite ṭawng hi hmanna bik deuh hmun nei a ni a, Mipui nawlpuiin kan thiam lo a, Paite hnam chauhin an hmang a ni.

Chutiang zelin Hmar ṭawng pawh Zoram hmar tlangdungah leh Mizoram pawna Hmar hnam awmnaah te chauh hman a ni a. Zoram chhunga Hmar hnam tam tak hian an hman loh avangin an thiam mang lo hlawm. Pawi leh Mara ṭawngte pawh a hmanna hmun bik (Mizoram chhim lam) nei an nih avangin Mizoram pumpui a huap lo bawk.

Hetiang a nih avang hian Mizo hnam pumpui huap leh kan thiam tlan ber chu Lusei/ Duhlian ṭawng hi a ni a. Mizo hnam zingah chuan Lusei te hi a tam ber leh a darh zau ber an niin a lang bawk a, chuvangin Duhlian ṭawng hi a tlanglawn ta her a ni. Heng ṭawng dangte nen pawh hian an inzul viau a, a bikin Ralte ṭawng nen phei chuan a inzul hle a, a tam zawk chu a inang a ngaih a ni. Kum 2007 khan B. Lalthangliana chuan Mizo ṭawng peng hrang hrangte ṭawng inhnaih dan a lakhawm a, chung zingah chuan Mizo ṭawng, Hmar, Lai, Paite, Ralte leh Thado-Kuki ṭawng te hi 28.16 % vel lai a inang a, Mizo ṭawng leh Hmar ṭawng bik phei chu 71.59% a inang a, Mizo ṭawng leh Lai ṭawng 65.73% leh Ralte ṭawng nen 87.21% lai a inang tih a hmu chhuak.23

Hetiang a nih avang hian heng Mizo ṭawng peng dang hmangho te pawh hian Lusei/ Duhlian ṭawng hi an thiam deuh vek mai a, anmahni bila an awmna tih lohvah chuan an ṭawng bil hi an hmang fo lem lo. Chuvangin Lusei/ Duhlian ṭawng ‘Mizo ṭawng’ hi kan hmang ta her a ni.

Mizo ṭawng Official Language ah pawm a ni :

A hma lama kan tarlan tawh angin tuna kan hman mek Mizo ṭawng hi ‘Duhlian ṭawng’ ngialngan kha ni tawh lovin Zo hnahthlak ṭawng dangte nen inpawlh chho tawh leh belh hret hret a nih tawh hmel a. Entirnan, hnam dang Sap leh vaiho ṭawngte pawh Mizo ṭawng ang maiin kan hmang chho ta zel a, kan ṭawngah kan seng lut zel a, kan tawng a hausak phah ta zel a nih hi. Hemi chungchangah hian Ralluaii Chhangte chuan, ‘Tichuan, hun kal zelin ṭawng a tihdanglam dan ngaihtuahin, tuna Mizo ṭawng kan hman tak leh kan pi leh pu tena an hman ṭhin chu a inang chiah lovang tih a rin theih a ni. Han ngaihzawn chuan, tuna Mizo ṭawng a hla thu kan tih te pawh hi hun engemaw laia kan pi leh pute tan chuan ṭawng dan pangngaia an thu hman a nih nual a rinawm’ tiin a ziak.24

A bul ṭhutah leh innghahna Duhlian ṭawng ni mahse ‘Mizo ṭawng’ ti a dah hian a huam zau tawh zawk a ni. Luseiho ṭawng mai ni tawh lovin Zo hnahthlak zawng zawngten kan ṭawng tualleng bera kan neih (Common language) a ni tawh a, neitu bik awm tawh lo, kan vaia ṭawng a ni tawh a, a hlu em em tawh a ni. Zo hnahthlak hrang hrangte pawhin ṭawng bik nei tho mah ila, he ṭawng hi kan ṭawng tuallenga kan hman ber leh kan thiam tlan ber a nih avangin ‘Mizo -ṭawng’a kan pawm a ṭha hle ang.

Kum 1981-a Chhiarpuiah khan Mizoramah mihring 4,93,757 an awm a, heng zinga mi 53.05% te hian Mizo ṭawng an hmang a, a hnu kum 1991 chhiarpuiah mihring 6,89,470 zingah 63.16% in an hmang leh a, kum 2001 ah chuan mihrmg 8,91 ,058 zingah 68.32% in an hmang leh. Chhiarpui hnuhnung ber 2011 ah khan mihring 10,97,206 zingah mi 830,846 (75.72%) in Mizo ṭawng hi an hmang tawh a ni.

Heta ṭanga thil langchiang ta chu, Mizo ṭawng hi Mizoram chhunga Zo hnam hrang hrangte hian kan ṭawng tualleng berah kan hmang tawh tih hi a ni. Hemi bakah hian Mizoram State pawn Manipur, Assam, Tripura, Bangladesh, Burma etc. a awm te pawhin hman berah an nei tawh bawk a ni.

Kum 1975 khan Mizoram Legislative Assembly chuan Mizo ṭawng hi ‘offlcial language’ a hmanna turin ‘Mizoram Official Language Act, 1974 a lo pass tawh a. Amaherawhchu hemi hnu hian a taka hman nghal mai a ni lo a, kum 1987 khan Official Language-a pawmna chu tih chhuah chauh a ni ta a ni. He Order hi August 14, 1987-ah tihchhuah a ni a, a tuk August 15, 1987 aṭanga hman nghal tura tih a ni nghe nghe a ni.25 Hetih rual hian he Order-ah vek hian Sixth Schedule hmanga din Autonomous District Council pathum Lai, Mara leh Chakma District ah te chuan a huam loh thu tarlan nghal a ni bawk. Amaherawhchu, heng Autonomous District Council-ah hian Mara leh Lai District ah te chuan Lai leh Mara ṭawng te hmang mahse Mizo ṭawng hi mi tam takin an hmang tho a ni.

Mizo ṭawng hi thih mai hlauhawmin a awm em ?

Ṭawng hi ral thei leh thang zel thei a nih avangin ven ve reng a ngai a, a ṭhan zelna tur pawhin ṭawng thar a pian ve reng a ngai bawk a. Chuvangin tuna ‘hetiang hi Mizo ṭawng a ni ngai lo’ kan tih pawh hi nakin lawkah chuan ṭawng dikah kan la pawm hun a awm ngei ang. Tunah pawh hian eng hi nge ṭawng dik leh dik lo? tih hi thliar a har ṭan ta hle mai. Amaherawhchu, a nawlpui pawhin kan hriat ve mai theih ṭawng dik lo hulhual hi chu a awm.

German Language Society Magazine (March, 1996) a chhuah ‘Muttersprache’(Mother Tongue) tarlan dan chuan kum 10,000 liam taah khan khawvela mihring maktaduai 1 vel lek an nih laiin ṭawng 10,000 – 15,000 vel a awm a, tunah chuan mihring maktaduai engemaw zat kan awm tawh hnuah hian ṭawng 6000 – 7000 vel chauh a awm tawh a ni. Heng ṭawng 7000 chuang zingah hian a chanve vel hi ral hlauhawmah an ding tawh a, tun kum zabi tawp lamah phei chuan a ral tawh turah an ngai nghe nghe a mi.26 Tun aṭanga kum 100 (2115) a ral leh chuan khawvelah hian ṭawng 600 vel chauh a awm tawh hialin an ring bawk.27

Tunhnaia India ram ṭawng hrang hrang dinhmun zirchianna Bhasha Research and Publication Centre, Vadodara-in an neihah chuan India rama ṭawng za-a sawmhnih (20%) vel chu tun kum 50 chhung hian an ral tih tarlan a ni a. UNESCO in kum 2010 -khan India rama ṭawng boral hlauhawm zual ho lakhawmin Level 4-ah an ṭhen a, chungte chu a hlauhawm nep dan indawtin Vulnerable (ral hlauhawm), Definitely endangered (ral hlauhawm tak), Severely endangered (ral hlauhawm tak zet), Critically endangered (ral mai tura dinhmun khirkhan taka awm tawh) tiin. He list-ah hian India hmarchhaka ṭawng engemaw zat a tel a, Chung zingah chuan Lusei (Duhlian) leh ‘Hmar’ ṭawng chu ‘Vulnerable’ ah dah an ni. Hetih lai hian Bhasha Research and Publication Centre buatsaih People’s Linguistic Survey of India (2013) in a tarlan dan chuan ṭawng thang duang zingah (rising / thriving languages) Mizo (Lusei) ṭawng an telh thar thung. Hemi chungchanga Ganesh N.Devy, Chairman, Peoples Lingusitic Survey of India (PLSI) leh Bhasha Research and Publication Centre dintu sawi dan chuan ‘lehkhathiam an tam tawh a, heng lehkhathiamte hian anmahni ṭawngin thuziak an ching chho ṭan a, hei hian nasa takin a ti ṭhang’ tiin a sawi.28

Ṭawng hi a hmangtu an tlem chuan a ral hma khawp a, hmangtu an tam erawh chuan a thang deuh deuh thung.

Tlangkawmna

A hma lama tarlan tak angin Mizo ṭawng hi a bul ṭhutah chuan Sino-Tibeto Language hlawm hnuaia Tibet-Burman hlawm a mi a ni a. Tibeto – Burman hlawm chhungah chuan Chin-Kuki hlawm a awm leh a, chumi zinga mi chu a ni. Mizo hnahthlak hrang hrangten ṭawng bil kan nei deuh vek a, Chung ṭawngte chu tun thlenga la hman tlanglawn awm bawk mahse hman lar tawh lem loh, a thih mai hlauhawm dinhmuna dingte an ni hlawm. Ṭawng bil zingah Lusei hovin an hman Duhlian tawng chu a rawn thang chho zel a, Mizo ṭawng dangte nen pawha inzul leh inang tam tak a lo awm bawk nen; hun reilote chhungin kan thiam tlan leh hman tlanglawn ber a ni chho ta a. Mizoram bikah phei chuan kum 1981 chhiarpui a mi 53.05% chauhvin an hman kha a hnu kum 30 ah chuan mi 75.72% in kan hmang ta a ni.

Author: Dr Malsawmliana – Associate Professor, Dept. of History,  Govt. T. Romana College, Aizawl.

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