INDOPUI PAKHATNA (World War-I 8th July 1914– 11th Nov 1918 ) - TIMES OF MIZORAM

28 Jun 2018

INDOPUI PAKHATNA (World War-I 8th July 1914– 11th Nov 1918 )

Vanlalsanga Tochhawng
- Khawbung.

INDOPUI PAKHATNAKhawvêl indopui pakhatna a lo chhuah hun lai khan kan chènna lei lungah hian tuisik pawh kan la ni pha eih lo va. A lo chhuah chhan tak hi a chìn chhuakin hre ve lem lo mah i la, ziaktu ṭhenkhatten an sawi danah chuan thil chhût sual vâng a ni e an ti a. Europe khawmuala politics leh sakhaw hruaitute, leh sipai hotute chuan an thu tlûkna siamin khawvêl pumah chhiatna a thlen dâwn tih an hre lo tih, "The Fall of the Dynasties—The Collapse of the Old Order 1905-1922," lehkhabu chuan a sawi. Austria ram milian (archduke) tihhlum a nih hnu chawlhkâr rei lo têah Europe khawmuala ram thiltithei zawng zawngte chu an duh loh indonaah an lut a. Indona a chhuah hnu rei lo têah German ram hruaitu chu “Engtin nge hêng thil zawng zawng hi a thlen?” tia zawh a ni a. “Ah, hria ila ka ti ngawt mai,” tiin lungngai takin a chhâng a ni.





Indona thlentu thu tlûkna siamtu hruaitute chuan a sawhkhâwk tûrte chu an hre hauh lo. Mahse, indona hmuna awm sipaite chuan thil nih dân chu an hre ta thuai a. An ram hruaitute chuan anni chu an ti hlawhchham a, an sakhaw hruaitute chuan an bumin, an sipai hotute chuan an phatsan a ni tih an hmu chhuak a ni. Ram hruaitute chuan indonain khawvêl thar leh ṭha zâwk neih theihna kawng a hawng dâwn niin thu an tiam a. German ram hruaitu chuan: “Hun râlmuang taka kan lo thawhrimna rahchhuah te, kan hun ropui kal tawha kan rochan te, leh kan nakin hun atân kan indo a ni,” a ti. America President Woodrow Wilson-a chuan indonain “mipui rorêlna atân khawvêl him a siam” dâwn tih auh hla lâr tak chu a chher chhuak a ni. Britain-ah pawh mite’n chu indona chu “indona titâwptu tûr indona” a nih an ring a ni. An va hre sual hlawm tak êm! Kim chang deuh zawkin han en zui leh i la.
INDOPUI PAKHATNA
Kum 1914 khan Francis Ferdinand, Hungary leh Austria lalram awptu tur chu Serbian terrorist ten an that a. He thil thleng avang hian Austria chu a thinur ta em em mai a, tichuan Serbia lakah chuan indo a puang zui ta nghal a. Hei hi khawvel history-a dai leh ngai tawh loh tur, khawvel indopui pakhatna (World War – I) lo chhuahna chhan bulpui ber chu a ni ta a ni. He thil thlen hnu lawk hian 1914 August thlaah Germany chuan Belgium a rûn a, France leh Russia te lakah indo a puang zui bawk a. He thil thleng hian khatih hunlaia indona rapthlak ber mai chu a hring zui ta bawk a ni.


Indona avanga buai mek ramte chu pawl hnihah an inṭhen phawk a. A lehlam pawl chu allies an tih mai, America, Britain, Russia, France, leh Italy te an ni a, pawl dang leh chu Germany, Hungary, Austria, Turkey etc. te an ni. An indona hmun ber chu Europe a ni a, chutih rual erawh chuan Pacific, Middle East leh Africa ram hmun thenkhat pawh a kangkai ve zel bawk a ni. Tin, Indopui Pakhatna hi indona hmuna thlawhtheihna (aeroplane) an hman hmasak berna a ni nghe nghe. Chanchin ziaktu ṭhenkhat chuan German Air Force Indo thlawhna khalhtu Pilot Manfred von Richthofen kha indo thlawhna khalh hmasa bertu niin an ziak hlawm a; hei erawh a dik ngei em hriat chian fak theih a ni lo thung.





Kum 1916 khan France rama a vawikhatna atan Britain chuan Tank a hmang a. Germany erawh chuan allied ho ralthuam leh eng ilo supply ṭhintu lawng tihchhiat nan tuihnuai lawng (submarines) a hmang thung. May 1915 khan an inbeihna kal zelah German submarine chuan British khualzin phur lawng Lusitania chu a kap fuh palh hlauh mai a, a chhunga chuang khualzin mi 100 chuang laiin nunna an chan phah bawk.

Indona a chhuah tirh hian he thil thleng hian ṭhalaite rilruah hna a thawk nasa hle mai a. Phûrna nasa tak siamin ṭhalai tam takte chu ram leh hnam tan tiin sipaiah an lut hum hum mai a. Mipate chauh pawh ni lovin hmeichhiate pawh an theih ang ang thawk a, factory vela aṭul apiang ti turin an inpe ṭeuh bawk. Nimahsela, zawi zawiin ramin a tuar dan chu a langchiang chho zel a. Nunna hlu tak sên ralna leh nunau manganga siamtu, fahraha naupang tam tak siam theitu thil pawi tak a nih zia pawh a lang chiang chho ve zel a ni.

Kum 1918 thleng kha chuan Austria leh a thawhpuite chu che ṭha zawkah ṭangin anmahni ngei pawhin chak zawk mai turah an inngai ṭhin a. Amaherawhchu, British lam hian an tam hneh hrim hrim bawk a, Bristish Navy te hian lawng chawlhhmunte chu an thuhnuaiah dahin German ho supply lut tur zawng zawng chu an danchah sak ta vek mai a ni. Hei hian dinhmun a thlak danglam ta zawk a ni. Novemer 1918 ah chuan German sipaite chu tlawmin indo pawh a tawp zui ta nghal a. He indona kum 4 bawr vel chhung hian mihring nunna ringawt pawh maktaduai 10 chuang lak a nih phah hial a nih kha.

Indopui pakhatna in arawn nghawng chhuah thil lang sar zual te.

INDOPUI PAKHATNA1. Indopui pakhatnaah khan sipai ram chhuak zawng zawng hmun thuma ṭhena hmun hnih vel thi fai vek anga chhut a ni a, chung zinga a tam zawk chu silaimu vang ni lo, hri leng vanga thi an ni. Hri chuan Sipai leh sipai lo a thliar lo tih kan hriat vek kha. Sipai bakah mihring thih hnem dan tur zia chu.

2. German chuan a hmasaberna ni turin Flamethrowers (Meialh phuh chuak thei Silai) a rawn hmang a, he flamethrowers hian 130ft zet a kap phak a ni.

3. Indopui pakhatnaah hian a vawikhatna atan tun laia Tank kan tih ‘Little Willie’ ti a an koh chu hman ṭan a ni a, kum 1915 khan an siam a, mi pathum a chhungah chuang lengin darkar khata 4.8km a chakin a tlan thei a ni.





4. Indopui chhung khan British ho khan an Tank-te chu a nu-ah leh a pa-ah an ṭhen hranga, tank nu-te chuan Machine gun lian ṭha tawk tak an pai a, tank pa-te erawhin laipui an pai ve thung.

5. Indona Silai ri leh laipui thawm chuan thawm nasa tak a chhuah renga, kum 1917 a Belgium a German ho awmna hmuna thil puak kha 220km a hla London aṭang pawhin a ri zu han hre pha a.

6. Belgium ram, Messines bula dil ‘Pool of Peace’ an tih, 40ft zeta thuk khi kum 1917 a British in tons 45 zeta rit bomb an thlakna ina a tih khuar a nih khi.

7. German fighter pilot Manfred Albrecht Freiherr Von Richthofen kha Indopui chhunga thlawhna kap tla hnem ber a ni a, thlawhna 80 ngawt a kap thla a ni. A thlawhna kah thlakna lamah a thih phah nghe nghe.

8. Indopui pakhatna hun lai khan Ui hi an hmang ṭangkai hle a, ral hma tawnga awmte tan pawh thuthawntu leh thirhrui thawn nana an hman ber a ni.

9. Tank hi a tirah tak chuan ‘Lei-lawng’ (Landship) tih a ni a. Amaherawh chu ralthuam dangte anga thuhruk ve zung zung theih ni hek lo, tui dahkhawlna zem (tank) lian tak tak phenah an thukru ṭhina. Tichuan British ho chuan a code name a tan ‘Tank’ tih hi an lo hmang ta a ni.

10. Khatih lai a U.S President ni lai Woodrow Wilson-a khan a term hnihna tur a chelh dawn mek a, chuta an au hla leh an intihtheihna ber chu “Ani hian Indona lak a ta min chhanhim” tih a ni. Mahse President office a luah aṭanga thla khatna lekah United States pawh chu Indopui-ah a zuang lut ve leh ta a ni.

11. Indopui pakhatna lai khan U.S Army an pung nasa hle a. Congress in ‘Selective Service Act’ an passed a, tihluihna hmanga Sipai a intantirna ti pawhin a sawi theih ang. Indopui a zawh khan U.S sipai maktaduaih 2.7 zet chu tih luihna hmanga lak an ni a, a bak maktaduaih 1.3 te erawh ram tana inpe (Volunteer) an ni.

12. U.S ram chhunga German mi awm tawh phawt chu rinhlelhna mitin an en veka, German lehkhabu zawng zawng an hal chhia a, German Shepherd dog pawh tam tak an thah mai bakah German leh American thlahpawlh pawh tih hlum an nei nual.

13. Hri leng ‘Spanish Flu’ vangin sipai hmun thum a ṭhena hmun khat zet an thi.

14. Indopui pakhatna avanga U.S in sum an hman ral zat kha $ tluklehdingawn 30 zet a ni. A hunlai ngaihtuah chuan a tam vet vet viau ang.





15. Indona avang khan Sipai ramtuileilo leh taksa hmelhem tam tak an awm a, a ṭhen chu an taksa ṭha lai hmun dang a mi hlepin an bel a, ṭhenkhatte erawh a ngaihna thlawt a awm loh avangin dam chhunga hmaikawr vuah ngaite an awm a, Sipai ṭhenkhatte phei chu an damchhungin dawmdawiinah an awm chawt mai a ni.

16. Indopui pakhatna avang khan lal ram pali ngawt, Ottoman, Austro-Hungarian, German leh Russia te chu an tlu chhe vek.

17. Indopui pakhatna hian hming dang a nei a, Great War, The World War, The War of the Nation leh War to End All Wars ti te a koh a ni.

18. He indona hian kum 4 zet a awh a, khawvel tuipui zawng zawng leh khawmualpui zawng zawng he indona hian a hrut chhuak veka, indona tual zawl ber erawh Europe ram a ni.

19. Indopui avangin Russia chuan a sipai nuai 12 zet a tir chhuaka, hei hi indona a Sipai intirh chhuahna lian ber a ni nghe nghe. Amaherawh chu a sipai hmun li a ṭhena hmun thum ngawt an thi a, a ṭhenin hliam na tak an tuar a, chin hriat lova bo tam tak an awm bawk.

20. United States tak hi chuan indo tawp hma kum khat leh a chanveah Indopui hi a zawm ve chauh.

21. France ram khu he Indopuia hmelmate beih nana gas hmang hmasa ber an ni. 1914 August thla khan a vawi khat nan German lamah tear gas grenades hmasa ber an vawm lut a. 1915 January-ah German hovin Russian sipaite beih nan tear gas a hmang veleh a, mahse Russia ram boruak vawtah chuan he gas hi a nih tur ang ni zo lovin tuiril (liquid) ah a chang ta vek a ni. 1915 April thlaah German vek hian Poisonous Chlorine gas (gas tûr pai) hmasa ber an hmang tan.

22. Indopui chhung hian German, France leh British te hian ral beih nan Gas an hmang nasa hle a, Sipai maktaduaih khat chuangin hipin an zinga mi 91,198 zetin an thihpui.

23. Indo chhung hian gas tûr pai chi hrang hrang 30 chuang hman a ni a, Sipaite chu an thawmhnaw zun khum a, hmai tuam nana hmang turin hrilh an ni hial. 1918 atang sipaite hman turin gas mask (hmaikawr) pek an ni.





24. Indo lai khan American sipai ho ina ‘Hello Girls’ ti a an koh an awm a, heng hmeichho hian indona mualah an mite tan telephone operators hna an lo thawk char char a. Heng hmeichhiate hi a bik taka zirtir an nih bakah French ṭawng leh English nal taka zirtir an ni bawk. Kum 1979 khan U.S Army chuan ‘Hello Girls’ zinga la damte chu chawimawina medal bakah hamthatna tha tak tak a pe a ni.

25. Indopui pakhatna a tel Sipai maktaduai chuangin natna chikhat ‘Shell Shock’ an tih mai chu an vei a, hei hi hun rei tak chhung hlau reng reng leh thlaphang reng reng a hun an hman vanga natna an vei a ni. An kawthalo a reh hlei thei lo va, an mu thei lo va, an ṭawng tawp hleithei lo va, a dar kar chuang chuang hi mahniin an phun mawlh mawlh zel mai a ni. Sipai ṭhenkhat chu an dam chhuak leha, ṭhenkhat erawh chuan an dam chhungin chu natna chu an vei thung.

26. Mipui leh Sipai maktaduaih 35 zet enkawl ngaiin an awm a, chung zinga maktaduaih 15 te chu an thi a, a bak maktaduaih 20 te chu hliam na tak tuar an ni.

27. 1914 Kristmas urlawk niah indo reng mai sipaite chuan lungrual leh inngaih takin Krismas urlawkni leh a tuk Krismas ni an hmang ho a, hei hi chu kan hriat vek a nih tho avangin sawi thui lovang. Hemi ṭuma thil thleng thinlung khawih tak erawh, khawvel History ah a chuang reng tawh ang.

28. British nurse pakhat, chhuanawm zet mai a awm a, chu nu chu Edith Cavell-i a ni. Ani hian an ram sipai an ni emaw, hmelma sipaite pawh ni se ṭanpui ngai apiang a theih ang angin a lo ṭanpui a, German sipaite pawh ni se hliam tuar a hmuh chuan a kalsan ngai lo. Mahse a ṭanpui German Sipaite ngei mai chuan manin an tihlum ta a ni. He an thil tih avang hian German chuan khawvel pum dem rawn a hlawh phah ta hial bawk.

29. He Indopuiah hian history-ah nikhata British sipai thi an tam ber ṭum a thleng a, hemi ni hian British sipai 60,000 zet hliam tuar buaipui ngaiin an awm a, hemi ṭuma sipai thi zat hi indo chhunga U.S sipai leh an National guard thi zawng zawng belhkhawm ai pawhin an tam zawk.

30. Indopui pakhatna a zawh hian khawvel economy a hma hruaitu British chu kumkhua a tan paihthlakin a lo awm ta a, a hma a ram hausa tak ni ṭhin khan ba tam tak neiin hna hmu lo mi tam tak a siama, chu chuan hun rei tak chhung an ram a ti ṭhuan awp nghe nghe.

31.Indopui lai hian mipa ral ram chhuak an tam em avangin an thawh ai zawng zawng hmeichhiain an lo thawh angai ta a, heta ṭang chiah hian hmeichhia, mipa thawh ang thawk an lo tam phah ta reng a ni.

32. Indopui pakhatna avang hian damdawi thiamna lamah nasa takin khawvelin hma a sawn phah a, hliam enkawl dan tha leh rang, ruh tliak enkawl dan leh in zai lam thlengin damdawi thiamnain hma a sawn phah hle. Chumai bakah thu leh hla lamah pawh khawvelin kan hmelhriat loh tur tha tha kan hmelhriat phahte pawh ti ila kan sawi sual lutuk lovang chu.

Heng a chunga kan sawi bakah hian thil tam tak Indopui laia thleng leh Indopuiin a a hrin chhuah ngaihnawm tak tak sawi tur a la tam a, mahse heng kan sawi tak aṭang hian Indopui rapthlak zia leh nunna a heh ziate, ram tam takin tlukchhiat hlen nana an hman tak thute kan hria a, hriatna a pun belh phah ngei turah beisei ang. Hei hi kum 100 liam ta a thil thleng a ni a, tun lai ralthuam leh Indopui pakhatna hunlai a an ralthuam neihte chu tehkhin rual a nih loh vei nen, a nghawng rapthlak zia erawh kan hria e. Tunah hian Indopui hmachhawn thei reng dinhmunah kan lo ding leh ta a. Indopui pakhatna hunlai kha chuan lal ram a tlu chhe hlen a, ram a keh darh a, tunah hian khawvel hian Indopui han hmachhawn leh vaih se chu ram chauh ni lo, ding chhuak tur awm tawh lovin khawvel hi a tlu chhe hlen ang tih hi a hlauhawm hle bawk a ni. Chuvang chuan ram leh ram indose kan tih hi tih loh a fin thlak viau a ni. A chhan dang leh chu kan economics zawng zawngin a tawrh phah dawn a ni. Chuvang chuan a theih chin chinah chuan indona hi pumpelh hram hram a ṭha ni, a nghawng a rapthlak tih hi ram tin hruaitu hian an hre chiang hle a ni.





Keini Mizoram kil khawr tak aṭanga an va indo har ve a tih a, an indo thawm hriat leh hmuh chu kan thil châk ber ni hian a lang fo va. Mahse, a tak ram hi lo thleng ni ngat se chuan kan zoramah ngei pawh hian ralmuanga kan awm hi a rinawm chiah lem lo a ni. Dik tak chuan, India ram kah chak ram hi an lo awm ve fir fer a, khawchhak leh khawthlang indo pawh ni se an kawngpui pakhat, an lam liam pawimawh tak kan nih ve miau dawn avangin ralmuanga kan awm loh hi a rinawm ber. Chu lo pawh ni se, tun laiah chuan Atomb bomb mai ni lo, Nuclear ralthuam khawvelah kan awm tawh miau avangin mit khap kar lovah vaivutah kan chan mai theihna tur hian khawvel sawrkar tam zawk hi a awm avangin, tu tan mah hian khawvel hi a him zo tawk tak tak thei dawn lo a ni.

A pawimawh ber chu indopui pathumna hi lo thleng ngei tura kan ngaih ni mek mah nise, Pathian hunbi ruat a lo thlen hma chuan a lo thleng rih kher lo vang. A hun a lo thlen hunah chuan duh lo eltiang mah ila, chu chhiatna bawihah chuan kan lut vek dawn si a. Khawvel hi ding chhuak leh tur awm lo khawpa indona rapthlak, khawvel indopui pathumna chu lo awm leh ngei tura ngaih, mahse engtikah nge tih hriat ni si lo kara awm kan nih avangin mahni nun tan ṭheuha tuna kan inbuatsaih reng hi a ngai a ni.

( Heng thute hi ka ir awm chhuak an ni vek lo va, thuziak hrang hrang ka chhiar te leh, ṭhenkhat chu an ziah anga ka zeh tel pawh a awm bawk. Fuh tawk lo deuh a awm anih chuan chhiartute hriatthiamna ka dil e.)

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