RAMRI LEH DAN LEH HRAI 

By Laduhoma, MLA

British Sorkarin kan chhehvel ram zawng zawng a rawn awp a. Cachar hi 1832 atang khan a awp tan a. Mizoram erawh chu Cachar an awp hnu hian kum 1895 thleng khan, kum 63 chhung Independent ram kan la ni.

Kan
pipute khan Moghul Traders te nen insumdawn tawnin, Syhlet, Chittagong leh Cachar-ah Saingho te, a ruh leh vun leh thil dangte an hralh thin a. An sum hmuhna pui ber chu Saingho a ni.

Lalduhoma Mizoram MLA
Chung kan pipute sai ram chhuahna ber, hnam dang an awm ve tih pawh an hriat hmaa an lo ta neih tawh ngawpuite chu thiatin Sapho chuan thingpui huan an rawn siam ta a. Chung an thingpui huante chu Sapho chuan an ram chhunga rinlutin, kum 1850 te, 1867 leh 1870 ahte ramri sawnin min rawn nek thuk ta tual tual a. Heng avang hian 1844 vel atang khan inkahna a thleng fo va. 1870 ramri phei hi chu Mizo Lalte khan an duh lo lehzual a. Chuvangin, Vai run runpui lo thlengin, Alexandrapur thingpui huan runte kha a lo thlen phah ta a ni.

1. BENGAL EASTERN FRONTIER REGULATION (BEFR) 1873

British Sorkar chuan Eastern Bengal ramrite chu tihchian tul a ti a. Chuvangin, Governor General in Council remtihnain, Regulation 5 of 1873, dt 27-8-1873 chu an siam ta a, ni 1-11-1873 atangin hman tan a ni. BEFR 1873 in a tum ber chu Inner Line siam a nih avangin 'Inner Line Regulation' tia hriat lar a ni.

He Dan hian British khua leh tuite chu Inner Line pela phalna lova kal te a khap a. Inner Line piah lama inhmun lo ram neih leh leilung hauhsakna lak chhuah te a khap a. Inner Line pawn lama Saingho leh sumdawnna thil lakte a khapin chhuhsak theihna te a pe a. Bengali sumdawngten min chimral loh nan leh buaina a chhuah loh nana siam a ni a, a tha hle, tun thlengin hman a la ni.

INNER LINE 1875

Ramria buaina thleng tur ven nan, British Sorkar chuan Mizo Lalte pawhin an pawmpui theih ramri siam tul a ti ta a, chuvangin, Cachar District chhim lam Mizoram nen a inkarah Inner Line a siam ta a, chu chu 'Inner Line on the Southern Frontier of the District of Cachar' tiin ziak a ni. Governor General in Council remtihnain Pu C.U.Aitchison, Foreign Secretary chuan, Notification No 2299P dt 20-8-1875 a chhuah ta a. Hei hi Inner Line 1875 kan tih fo, tun thlenga kan ramri kan tih hi a ni. I lo bih chiang teh ang:-

1) He Inner Line 1875 hi British-in Mizoram awp a tumna ni lovin, an ram chin an tihchianna a ni.

2) Mizo Lalte pawhin an pawmpui ramri a ni a. Hetih lai hian Mizoram chu Independent ram a nih avangin, Sorkar leh Sorkar inkar ramri - International Boundary a ni.

3) Sec 2 BEFR 1873 hnuaia siam a ni a. British khua leh tuite chuan Cachar DC hnen atanga ziaka phalna la lo chuan Mizoram an luh phal a ni lo va. Mizoram tualchhung mi ni lote chuan inhmun lo ram neihte leh leilung atanga dehchhuah hmanga sumdawnte phal a ni lo.

4) Col.H.R.Thullier, Surveyor General of India chuan he Inner Line dungzui hian North Eastern Frontier Map, Third Edition chu 1893 ah siamin, Sheet No 15 naah tarlan a ni.

5) Hmun 46 ah Boundary Pillar phun a ni a, ramri kal dan pawh chipchiar taka ziak a ni a, leilunga ramri rin fel awmchhun a ni.

6) Ramria hmun langsar zualte chu – Tlawng dunga  Kukicherra te, Sichar kawngpui hluia Duarbandh te leh tuna Silchar kawngpuia Bagha Bazar te hi an ni.

7) He Inner Line hian a tirah District dang engemaw zat a huam ve a. Chungte chu State te an lo nih tak avangin tunah chuan Nagaland, Mizoram, Arunachal Pradesh leh Manipur ah te chauh hman a ni ta.

8) Memorandum of Settlement-ah khan Inner Line Regulation hi Mizoram Sorkar rawn lo chuan tihdanglam a ni lo vang tih a ni.

9) Citizenship Amendment Act, 2019, Sec 6B chuan CCA hian Inner Line Regulation hmanna hmun te chu a huap lo vang a ti bawk.

2. INNER LINE RESERVED FOREST, 1877

He 1875 Cachar chhim lam Inner Line hi Mizo Lalte pawhin an pawm a nih avangin, remna a thlen zui pawh beisei a ni a. Mahse, hemi hnu kum 1 leh thla 3 lekah, British Sorkar chuan Mizoram chhungah Inner Line Reserved Forest a siam leh ta mai a. Hei hian indona a tichhuak leh ta a ni. I lo bih chiang leh teh ang:-

1) Ni 17-3-1877 ah ram 509 Sq.mile a zau chu Inner Line Reserved Forest-ah puan a ni ta a.

2) A tirah chuan British ram leh Mizoram inkarah ram ngaw zau tak a awm chuan buaina tam tak pumpelh a nih beiseia siam a ni..

3) Hei hi Sec 2 Indian Forest Act, 1865 behchhana siam a ni. Hetih lai hian Mizoram chu Independent ram a la nih avangin, British Sorkar Dan siam engmah Mizoram chhungah hman theih a la ni lo, chuvangin hei hian Dan a kalh a ni.

4) He Reserved Forest hi Mizoram chhunga awm a nih avangin, British Sorkar hian Foreign Country chhungah Reserved Forest siam theihna a nei lo.

Reserved Forest hi Mizoram chhung a nihzia chu –

Appendix to Assam Forest Manual ah te, Assam Gazette phek 497 dt 11-9-1875 ah te leh Para 86 of Assam Government Note on the Lushais 1873-1889 ah te hmuh theih a ni.

5) Hei hian 1875 ramri kha a luahlan chuang lo va. Amaherawh chu, he Reserved Forest enkawlna hi Cachar Forest kuta dah a nih tak avangin an intineitu ta tual tual a ni.

3.  SCHEDULED DISTRICT ACT, 1874

Sawi tawh ang khan he Inner Line Forest hian indona a chawk chhuak leh ta a. Khawvel sorkar chak ber chu keini hneh rual ni hek lo le, kan tlawm ta a, Governor General in Council remtihnain, Foreign Secretary Pu W.J. Cunningham chuan, ni 6-9-1895 khan, Proclamation no. 1697 E, 1698 E leh 1699 E hmangin British Lalramah min puang ta a ni. North Lushai Hills chu Assam-ah an behtir a, South Lushai Hills chu Bengal-ah an behtir a, Chin Hills chu Burma-ah an behtir a. Ni 1-4-1898 ah North leh South Lushai Hills chu Lushai Hills tih hnuaiah hmun khatah dahin Assam hnuaiah min dah ta a. Chin Hills erawh chu Burma-ah a bet hlen ta a ni.

Britsih ram ni tawh mahila, Excluded Area-a awm kan nih avangin, British India tana Dan siamte chu kan chungah hman ve nghal theih a ni chuang lo. Section 5-na chuan Governor General in Council remtihnain Local Government chuan British India tana Dan siamte chu Scheduled District-ah hmantir ve theihna a pe a. Section 8-na chuan Governor General in Council chu Scheduled District ramrite siam theihna leh tihdanglam theihna a pe bawk.

Scheduled District Act, 1874 chu 1898 atangin kan chungah hman a lo ni ve ta a. Section 8 in thuneihna a pek hmangin Cachar District leh Lushai Hills ramri chu ni 16-3-1904 leh ni 23-2-1912 ah tihdanglam a ni a. Inner Line Reserved Forest pawh kha kan chang tlem ta hret hret zel a ni.

Scheduled District-te hi Backward Area tana siam a ni a. Hun a lo kal zel a, a thente chu State te kan lo ni ta a. Scheduled District Act dungzuiin Tribal Area te tan Sixth Schedule hi siam a lo ni ta a, chumi hnuaiah chuan Autonomous District Council te dah an ni a. Scheduled Area te erawh chu Fifth Schedule hnuaiah dah an ni ta thung a. 

4. INNER LINE 1930 LEH 1933 

Assam Sorkar chuan Inner Line 1875 kha hnawksak an tih avangin tihbo va 1912-a Lushai Hills ramri an siam tak dungzuia Inner Line thar siam an duh ta a, Inner Line 1875 kha tihdanglam rawtna an thlen ta a ni. Chu chu Foreign and Political Department chuan an pawmpui a, (vide letter No 209X dt 25-7-1930). Sawiselna a awm avangin heihi cancel a ni leh a. A aiah, Governor General in Council pawmpuinain Inner Line 1933 chu an siam ta zawk a ni, (Vide Notification No 2106 AP dt 9-3-1933). Hei hi tun thlenga Assam Sorkarin Ramri atana an pawm leh an tlawhchhan lo ni ta hi a ni. Lo bel chiang leh ila:-

1)  Inner Line 1933 hi Superintendent of Lushai Hills emaw, Mizo Lalte emaw remtihnaa siam a ni lo va, rawn pawh an ni bawk hek lo.

2) Hei hian kan ramri atana kan pawm Inner Line 1875 kha a rawn nuaibo (abolish) ta a ni.

3) Inner Line 1933 hian Scheduled District Act, 1874 hnuaia 1912-a ramri siam kha a rawn luahlan (supercede) bawk.

4) Tunhma lama Lushai Hills-a la hman ve ngai reng reng loh BEFR 1873 kha hman a lo ni ve tan ta bawk.

5) Mizoram Sorkar hian 1933 hi an pawm tih theih mai turin, hemi hnuaiah hian Inner Line Permit pek chhuah dan Guideline an siam thin a ni.

6) Hei hi Lushai Hills hmar lam ramri, Cachar District nena kan inkar ramri anga ngaih a ni.

7) Inner Line 1875 chauh kha leilunga rin chian a ni a, 1904 ramri te, 1912 ramri te leh Inner line 1933 te hi ngaihruat rin vek an ni a, leilungah ramri lungte phuna tihchian an ni ve lo. Hei hian tun thlengin ramri inchuhna a siam zui ta a. Tun hnu lamah hian kan duhna lai laiah boundary pillar te phunin, Sign Board te kan siam a. Dik tak chuan, 1933 Inner Line hi a tu lam lam pawhin kan theihna zawn zawnah kan bawhchhe tawn ve ve a ni.

8) Lushai District ramri 1904 te, 1912 te leh Inner Line 1933 te hi 1877-a Inner Line Reserved Forest kha Cachar lama behtir tuma hmalakna vek an ni.

9) 1952-ah Lushai Hills District chu Lushai Hills District Council-ah siam a lo nih khan, 1933 Inner Line hi ramriah a chhawm ta zel a. Ni 29-4-1954 ah Lushai Hills District Council chu Parliament-in Mizo District Council tiin a hming a thlak a. District Council chuan Resolution no. 271 of 10-7-1965 siamin, Assam Sorkarah ni 24-8-1965 khan, Pu C. Pahlira, EM chuan lehkha thehlutin, 1875 ramri kha neih let leh an ngiat a. Assam Sorkar nen inbiakna an nei ta a, a hnuhnung ber chu Commissioner for Hills kaihhruaina hnuaia ni 9-12-1965-a Shillong-a an inbiak kha a ni. Ram a buai tak avangin inbiakna a awm zui ta lo. Kan District Council te pawh kha an harh tlai hrim hrim a, kum 13 hnuah aw an chhuah chauh a nih chu.

10) Mak ve ang reng tak chu Inner Line Reserve Forest chu kan District chhungah a awm tawh lo chungin, Assam Sorkar chuan Reserve Forest chhunga chhiah an lak atangin 70% chu District Council Fund-ah an la rawn chhung zui ve zel tho va. He chhiah hi District Council Fund-a chhun luh tur a nih thu pawh R.V. Subramaniam, Secretary, Tribal Area Department, Assam pawhin Lushai Hills Deputy Commissioner hnenah ziakin a rawn hrilh a (Vide No. TAD/FR/52/51 dt 3-10-1953). D.S. Khongdup, ADC I/C Forest, Lushai Hills chuan Assam Conservator of Forest hnenah Letter No FA 14/53/135 dt 22-12-1953 ah Reserve Forest atanga chhiah lak te chu Unclassed State Forest atanga lak anga ngaih tur a ni tawh em tih a zawt a. Chu chu M.C. Bhattacharjee, Conservator of Forest, Assam chuan letter No. A.69 dt 16-2-1954 ah rawn chhangin, Lushai Hills District chhunga Inner Line Reserved Forest hi Forest Reserve a la nih reng avangin Unclassed State Forest anga ngaih tur a ni lo vang a rawn ti a ni. Assam Sorkar ngei pawhin 1933 Inner Line hi Mizoram nena an inkara ramriah an pawm tak tak bik lo a ang hle, Reserved Forest chu Mizoram chhungah an la ngai ve tho mai. UT kan lo nih khan chhiah hi an rawn chhung lo ta mai. Chhiah an rawn chhun zui tak loh chungchangah hian “Engatinge in rawn chhun tak loh” tiin kan Sorkarte khan zawh pawh an zawt miah lo zu nia. “Mi a-in an at man an chawi seng lo” tih ang mai kan ni.

11) UT kan lo nih khan, ni 2-1-1974 khan Pu Ch. Chhunga khan Memorandum tha tak a thehlut a. Khatih lai khan PA to CM ka nih avangin Type Writer hmanga Document zawng zawng chhutu kha ka ni nghe nghe. Pu Ch.Chhunga lehkha chu Home Minister Pu O.M. Mehta chuan ni 17-1-1976 khan rawn chhangin, Cachar leh Mizoram ramri chu Inner Line 1933 dt 9-3-1933 khan a lo tifiah tawh a, NEAR Act, 1971 in a lo pawm tawh bawk a, Parliament-in Dan a lo siam hnan tawh a nih avangin tihdanglam tum a ni tawh lo a rawn ti hmiah mai.

5. TLANGKAWMNA

Ramri chungchang hi, a tawi thei ang berin ti hian han khaikhawm ila:-

1) 1875 ah Inner Line siam a ni a, heihi tun thlenga kan tanfung a la ni.

2) 1877 ah kan ram chhungah 509 Sq.mile (1318.31 Sq.km) laia zau Inner Line Reserved Forest siam a ni a, Cachar Forest kuta dah a ni.

3) Scheduled District Act, 1874 hmangin 1904 leh 1912 ah ramri tihdanglam niin, Reserved Forest zau tak Cachar lamah rinluh a ni.

4) 1912 ramri dungzuiin Inner Line 1933 siam leh a ni. Heihi Assam-in tanfungah an hmang a, keinin 1875 Inner Line tanfungah kan hmang. He Line hi kan bawhchhe ve ve.

5) Pu Ch.Chhungan Memorandum a thehluh bak kha chu kan Sorkarin Central-ah Memorandum thehluh a nei tawh lo.

6) MNF leh Home Ministry-in MOS an siam dawn khan, Pu Laldengan 1875 ramri hi a demand a. Kei pawhin MP leh Ruling Party President leh Peace Committee Chairman ka nih angin Home Minister leh Prime Minister te ka dawr ve a. State dang kaihhnawih a nih avangin hun rei tak a duh dawn a, Art 3 of Indian Constitution hnuaiah la sawi zui theih a ni tiin i dah mai ang u an ti a. Chutiang chuan UT ramri chu State-in a chhawm ta zel a ni.

7) British Parliament-in Indian Independence Act, 1947 a pass kha United Kingdom Lalber-in ni 18-7-1947 khan a pawmpui a. He Independence Act, 1947 Section 7 (I) (C) ah hian British Sorkarin Tribal Area te nena thuthlung (treaties) te, phalna (grant) te, inenkawlna dan (usage) te, remtihna (sufferance) te leh thil dang avanga dikna chanvo (rights) te, thuneihna (authority) te, thuneihnain a huap chin (jurisdiction) te, sauitan (treaties) te leh inremna (agreement) a lo siampui zawng zawngte kha hunin a liampui (lapse) vek ang tih a chuang bawk. Hei hian kan tanfung a tiphet hle thei bawk ang.

A tawp berah chuan heng Dante hi bih chiang ila. Kan ramri buai chingfel tur hian engtia hmalak nge tha ber ang tih i ngaihtuah tlang ang u.

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